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MediaSync pp 105-146 | Cite as

Time, Frequency and Phase Synchronisation for Multimedia—Basics, Issues, Developments and Opportunities

  • Hugh Melvin
  • Jonathan Shannon
  • Kevin Stanton
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive overview of timing. We describe the underlying concepts that comprise timing through examples and then present a range of mature, standardised and evolving techniques to improve the so-called time awareness across the full Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure over which multimedia applications operate. Although the media synchronisation community is already acutely aware of timing issues, this chapter offers some valuable insights through its holistic approach to timing.

Keywords

Timing Time awareness Time synchronisation protocols Time-sensitive networking 

Notes

Definitions

Time

an instant (or time of day) on a selected time-scale.

Timescale

a family of time codes for a particular coordinate time that provide an unambiguous time ordering of events.

Time synchronisation

relative adjustment of two or more sources of time with the purpose of cancelling their time differences.

Frequency

refers to a rate of repetition (of an event) per unit of time and thus two clocks are frequency synchronised if they oscillate at the exact same rate.

Syntonisation

the relative adjustment of two or more frequency sources with the purpose of cancelling their frequency differences but not necessarily their phase difference.

Time Awareness

the extent to which a device, system or device/system model has an appropriate ability to sense and respond to timing signals/information.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceNational University of IrelandGalwayRepublic of Ireland
  2. 2.Intel CorporationSanta ClaraUSA

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