Advertisement

Energy Consumption and Hardware Utilization of Standard Software: Methods and Measurements for Software Sustainability

  • Achim GuldnerEmail author
  • Marcel Garling
  • Marlies Morgen
  • Stefan Naumann
  • Eva Kern
  • Lorenz M. Hilty
Conference paper
Part of the Progress in IS book series (PROIS)

Abstract

The ubiquity of information and communication technologies (ICT) results in substantial amounts of energy consumption and thus, CO2-emissions. Since software induces the energy consumption of hardware, some reliable procedures and tests for measuring software are necessary. We present such a method and prove our measurement concept by applying it to two software product groups: word processors and content management systems. Even though the two groups are very different in terms of their requirements, we were successful in the creation of a measurement environment that supports the production of reliable, verifiable results, allowing the comparison of the energy consumption induced by software systems with similar functionality. The method shows viable results for desktop and client-server systems, paving the way for further setups like e.g. mobile and embedded devices.

Keywords

Green software engineering Software energy consumption Green IT 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work for this paper was supported by the UFOPLAN-SSD project, funded by the German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt - UBA).

References

  1. Awad MK, Rafique Y, M’Hallah RA (2017) Energy-aware routing for software-defined networks with discrete link rates: a benders decomposition-based heuristic approach. Sustain Comput: Inf Syst 13:31–41. doi: 10.1016/j.suscom.2016.11.003
  2. Beghoura MA, Boubetra A, Boukerram A (2017) Green software requirements and measurement: random decision forests-based software energy consumption profiling. Requir Eng 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s00766-015-0234-2
  3. Calero C, Bertoa M, Angeles Moraga M (2013) A systematic literature review for software sustainability measures. In: 2013 2nd international workshop on green and sustainable software (GREENS), pp 46–53Google Scholar
  4. Calero C, Piattini M (2015) Introduction to green in software engineering. In: Calero C, Piattini M (eds) Green in software engineering. Springer, pp 3–27Google Scholar
  5. Chowdhury SA, Hindle A (2016) GreenOracle: estimating software energy consumption with energy measurement corpora. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on mining software repositories, pp 49–60Google Scholar
  6. Corral L, Georgiev AB, Sillitti A, Succi G (2013) A method for characterizing energy consumption in Android smartphones. In: 2013 2nd international workshop on green and sustainable software (GREENS), pp 38–45Google Scholar
  7. Dick M, Kern E, Drangmeister J, Naumann S, Johann T (2011) Measurement and rating of software-induced energy consumption of desktop pcs and servers. In: Pillmann W, Schade S, Smits P (eds) Innovations in sharing environmental observations and information: proceedings of the 25th international conference enviroinfo October 5–7, 2011, Ispra, Italy. Shaker, Aachen, pp 290–299Google Scholar
  8. Dirlewanger W (2006) Measurement and rating of computer systems performance and of software efficiency: an introduction to the ISO/IEC 14756 method and a guide to its application. Kassel University Press, KasselGoogle Scholar
  9. Feitosa D, Alders R, Ampatzoglou A, Avgeriou P, Nakagawa EY (2017) Investigating the effect of design patterns on energy consumption. J Softw: Evol Process 29(2)Google Scholar
  10. Godboley S, Dutta A, Mohapatra DP, Mall R (2017) Green-J3 model: a novel approach to measure energy consumption of modified condition/decision coverage using concolic testing. CSI Trans ICT 1–17Google Scholar
  11. Gui J, Li D, Wan M, Halfond WGJ (2016) Lightweight measurement and estimation of mobile ad energy consumption. In: Proceedings of the 5th international workshop on green and sustainable software, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  12. Hilty L, Lohmann W, Behrendt S, Evers-Wölk M, Fichter K, Hintemann R (2015) Green software: final report of the project: establishing and exploiting potentials for environmental protection in information and communication technology (Green IT). Report commissioned by the Federal Environment Agency, Berlin, Förderkennzeichen 3710 95 302/3(23)Google Scholar
  13. Hintemann R, Clausen J (2016) Green cloud? The current and future development of energy consumption by data centers, networks and end-user devices. In: Grosso P, Lago P, Osseyran A (eds) Proceedings of ICT for sustainability 2016. Atlantis PressGoogle Scholar
  14. Kern E, Dick M, Naumann S, Guldner A, Johann T (2013) Green software and green software engineering—definitions, measurements, and quality aspects. In: Hilty LM, Aebischer B, Andersson G, Lohmann W (eds) ICT4S ICT for sustainability: proceedings of the first international conference on information and communication technologies for sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14–16, 2013. ETH Zurich, University of Zurich and Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Zürich, pp 87–94Google Scholar
  15. Lami G, Buglione L (2012) Measuring software sustainability from a process-centric perspective. In: 2012 joint conference of the 22nd international workshop on software measurement and the 2012 seventh international conference on software process and product measurement (IWSM-MENSURA), pp 53–59Google Scholar
  16. Li D, Lyu Y, Gui J, Halfond WGJ (2016) Automated energy optimization of http requests for mobile applications. In: Proceedings of the 38th international conference on software engineering, pp 249–260Google Scholar
  17. Manotas I, Bird C, Zhang R, Shepherd D, Jaspan C, Sadowski C, Pollock L, Clause J (2016) An empirical study of practitioners’ perspectives on green software engineering. In: Proceedings of the 38th international conference on software engineering, pp 237–248Google Scholar
  18. Naumann S, Dick M, Kern E, Johann T (2011) The GREENSOFT model: a reference model for green and sustainable software and its engineering. SUSCOM 1(4):294–304. doi: 10.1016/j.suscom.2011.06.004
  19. Noureddine A, Islam S, Bashroush R (2016) Jolinar: analysing the energy footprint of software applications. In: The international symposium on software testing and analysisGoogle Scholar
  20. Procaccianti G, Fernández H, Lago P (2016) Empirical evaluation of two best practices for energy-efficient software development. J Syst Softw 117:185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rashid M, Ardito L, Torchiano M (2015) Energy consumption analysis of algorithms implementations. In: 2015 ACM/IEEE international symposium on empirical software engineering and measurement (ESEM), pp 1–4Google Scholar
  22. Siebra C, Costa P, Miranda R, Silva FQB, Santos A (2012) The software perspective for energy-efficient mobile applications development. In: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on advances in mobile computing and multimedia, pp 143–150Google Scholar
  23. Williams DR, Tang Y (2015) A methodology to measure the environmental impact of ICT operating systems across different device platforms. J Electr Sci Technol 3Google Scholar
  24. Willnecker F, Brunnert A, Krcmar H (2014) Model-based energy consumption prediction for mobile applications. In: Proceedings of workshop on energy aware software development (EASED)@ EnviroInfo, pp 747–752Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Achim Guldner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marcel Garling
    • 1
  • Marlies Morgen
    • 1
  • Stefan Naumann
    • 1
  • Eva Kern
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lorenz M. Hilty
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.University of Applied Sciences Trier, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, Institute for Software SystemsBirkenfeldGermany
  2. 2.Leuphana University LüneburgLüneburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of InformaticsUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Technology and Society LabEmpa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and TechnologySt. GallenSwitzerland
  5. 5.KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations