Advertisement

The Costs and Sustainability of Ongoing Efforts to Restore and Protect Louisiana’s Coast

  • Adrian R. H. Wiegman
  • Jeffrey S. Rutherford
  • John W. Day
Chapter
Part of the Estuaries of the World book series (EOTW)

Abstract

The coast is the most vital economic region in Louisiana and is being affected greatly by land loss. The Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA) is an overarching agency responsible for planning, coordinating, and implementing restoration and protection projects in the Louisiana Coastal Zone. CPRA publishes the Louisiana Coastal Master Plan (LACMP), a living document that is revised every five years according to new information from science and models. We overview the major processes involved with coastal restoration planning in Louisiana and the various types of restoration approaches and tradeoffs between them. The LACMP has co-evolved with numerical modeling tools that allow managers to identify tradeoffs between objectives that are sometimes at odds, such as: restoring natural processes to sustain ecosystems in the delta, and promoting economic development in the working coast. Marsh creation and river sediment diversions are two contrasting approaches that have the greatest potential for land building within the coastal zone. Both marsh creation and river diversions require a vast amount of energy and capital during implementation. Marsh creation requires large amounts of fuel for each unit of sediment delivered to a marsh and the costs are subject to changes in energy prices. River diversions, however, use gravitational energy to move sediment and are more sustainable in the long term, especially in an energy-constrained future. There are significant financial limitations on the LACMP that could be exacerbated by fluctuations in energy markets. An appropriate next step for the CPRA would be to incorporate energy forecasts into the planning process. Doing so might illuminate sustainability risks not yet considered by coastal planners.

Keywords

Coastal planning Energy costs Marsh creation River diversions Hydraulic dredging Decision support tools 

References

  1. Allison MA, Meselhe EA (2010) The use of large water and sediment diversions in the lower Mississippi River (Louisiana) for coastal restoration. J Hydrol 387(3):346–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison MA, Ramirez MT, Meselhe EA (2014) Diversion of Mississippi River Water Downstream of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA to Maximize Sediment Capture and Ameliorate Coastal Land Loss. Water Resour Manag 28(12):4113–4126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aucott M, Hall C (2014) Does a Change in Price of Fuel Affect GDP Growth? An Examination of the US Data from 1950–2013. Energies 7(10):6558–6570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes S, Bond C, Burger N, Anania K, Strong A, Weilant S, Virgets S (2015) Economic evaluation of coastal land loss in Louisiana. Lousiana State University and the Rand Corporation. Published online. http://coastal.la.gov/economic-evaluation-of-land-loss-in-louisiana/
  5. Batker D, Torre ID, Costanza R, Swedeen P, Day JW, Boumans R, Bagstad K (2010) Gaining ground: wetlands, hurricanes, and the economy: the value of restoring the Mississippi River Delta. Environ Law Rep News Anal 40(11):11106–11110Google Scholar
  6. Beckerman W, Hepburn C (2007) Ethics of the discount rate in the Stern Review on the economics of climate change. World Econ-Henley Thames 8(1):187Google Scholar
  7. Belesimo FJ (2000) Cost estimating projects for large cutter and hopper dredges. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  8. Bray RN, Bates AD, Land JM (1997) Dredging: a handbook for engineersGoogle Scholar
  9. Caffey RH, Wang H, Petrolia DR (2014) Trajectory economics: Assessing the flow of ecosystem services from coastal restoration. Ecol Econ 100:74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen SS, Hsu KW (2012) Reverse globalization: Does high oil price volatility discourage international trade? Energy Econ 34(5):1634–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chmura G (1992) Modeling coastal marsh stability in response to sea level rise: a case study in coastal Louisiana, USA. Ecol Model 64:47–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark FR, Bienn HC, Willson CS (2015) Assessing the cost of coastal land creation using dredged material. The water institute of the Gulf. Funded by the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority under the Science & Engineering Plan–Project implementation support task. Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  13. Coastal Engineering Consultants (2010) Pass Chaland to Grand Bayou Pass Barrier Shoreline Restoration Project (BA-35) Project Completion Report. Prepared for: State of Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration New Orleans Field Office and NOAA Fisheries US Department of CommerceGoogle Scholar
  14. Cobell Z, Zhoa H, Roberts HJ, Clark R, Zou S (2013) Storm surge and wave modeling for the Louisiana 2012 Coastal Master Plan. In: Peyronnin NS, Reed D (eds) Louisiana’s 2012 Coastal Master Plan Technical Analysis. J Coast Res, Special Issue 67Google Scholar
  15. Condrey RE, Hoffman PE, Evers DE (2014) The last naturally active delta complexes of the Mississippi River (LNDM): discovery and implications. In: Day JW et al (eds) Perspectives on the restoration of the Mississippi delta, Estuaries of the World. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  16. Couvillion BR, Steyer GD, Wang H, Beck HJ, Rybczyk JM (2013) Forecasting the effects of coastal protection and restoration projects on wetland morphology in coastal Louisiana under multiple environmental uncertainty scenarios. In: Peyronnin NS, Reed DJ (eds) Louisiana’s 2012 Coastal Master Plan Technical Analysis. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 67Google Scholar
  17. CPRA (2007) Louisiana’s comprehensive master plan for a sustainable coast. Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana (CPRA), Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  18. CPRA (2012a) Louisiana’s Comprehensive master plan for a sustainable coast. 2012 Coastal master plan. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  19. CPRA (2012b) Appendix A: project definitions. 2012 Coastal master plan. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  20. CPRA (2012c) Appendix A: 2 Project fact sheets. 2012 Coastal master plan. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  21. CPRA (2012d) Appendix C: Environmental scenarios. 2012 Coastal Master Plan. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  22. CPRA (2012e) Appendix D: decision support tools–predictive models. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  23. CPRA (2012f) Appendix D-1 Eco-hydrology model technical report. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  24. CPRA (2012g) Appendix D: 2 Wetland morphology model technical report. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  25. CPRA (2012h) Appendix E: decision support tools–planning tool. 2012 Coastal master plan. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  26. CPRA (2012i) Appendix F: 1 Adaptive management. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  27. CPRA (2012j) Appendix K: Davis-Bacon prevailing wage determinations. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  28. CPRA (2012k) Bid tool – “PPL25 nominee west vermilion MC SP final cost 4–01-15”. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  29. CPRA (2014) 2017 coastal master plan: model improvement plan. Version II (March 2014), prepared by The Water Institute of the Gulf. Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, Baton Rouge, p 52Google Scholar
  30. CPRA (2015a) Fiscal year 2016 annual plan: integrated ecosystem restoration and hurricane protection in coastal Louisiana. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  31. CPRA (2015b) Barrier Island status report draft fiscal year 2016 annual plan February 2015. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  32. CPRA (2016) Fiscal year 2017 annual plan: integrated ecosystem restoration and hurricane protection in coastal Louisiana. CPRA, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  33. CPRA (2017a) Louisiana’s comprehensive master plan for a sustainable coast. 2017 Coastal master plan. Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  34. CPRA (2017b) Appendix A: project definitions. 2017 Coastal Master Plan. Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  35. CPRA (2017c) Appendix A: 2 project fact sheets. 2017c Coastal Master Plan. Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  36. CPRA (2017d) 2017 draft coastal master plan. http://cimscoastallouisianagov/masterplan/. Accessed 10 Feb 2015Google Scholar
  37. CPRA (2017e) Appendix C: environmental scenarios. 2017 Coastal master plan. Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  38. Daly HE (1994) Fostering environmentally sustainable development: four parting suggestions for the World Bank. Ecol Econ 10(3):183–187Google Scholar
  39. Das A, Justic D, Inoue M, Hoda A, Huang H, Park D (2012) Impacts of Mississippi River diversions on salinity gradients in a deltaic Louisiana estuary: ecological and management implications. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 111:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Davis M, Vorhoff H (2014) Financing the future. Turning coastal restoration and protection plans into realities: the cost of comprehensive coastal restoration and protection. First in an occasional series. An issue paper of the Tulane Institute on Water Resources Law and PolicyGoogle Scholar
  41. Davis M, Vorhoff H, Boyer D (2015) Financing the future. Turning coastal restoration and protection plans into realities: the cost of comprehensive coastal restoration and protection. second in an occasional series. An issue paper of the Tulane Institute on water resources law and policyGoogle Scholar
  42. Day JW, Moerschbaecher M (2014) The impact of global climate change and energy scarcity on Mississippi delta restoration. In: Perspectives on the Restoration of the Mississippi Delta. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Day JW, Britsch LD, Hawes SR, Shaffer GP, Reed DJ, Cahoon D (2000) Pattern and process of land loss in the Mississippi Delta: a spatial and temporal analysis of wetland habitat change. Estuaries 23(4):425–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Day JW Jr, Barras J, Clairain E, Johnston J, Justic D, Kemp GP et al (2005) Implications of global climatic change and energy cost and availability for the restoration of the Mississippi delta. Ecol Eng 24(4):253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. DeLaune RD, Pezeshki SR, Patrick WH Jr (1987) Response of coastal plants to increase in submergence and salinity. J Coast Res 3(4):535–546Google Scholar
  46. DeLaune RD, Whitcomb JH, Patrick WH Jr, Pardue JH, Pezeshki SR (1989) Accretion and canal impacts in a rapidly subiding wetland. I. 137Cs and 210Pb techniques. Estuaries 12(4):247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. DeLaune RD, Nyman JA, Patrick WH Jr (1994) Peat collapse, ponding and wetland loss in a rapidly submerging coastal marsh. J Coast Res 10(4):1021–1030Google Scholar
  48. Dittmar M (2016) Regional oil extraction and consumption: a simple production model for the next 35 years Part I. arXiv preprint arXiv:1601.07716Google Scholar
  49. Ebrahim Z, Inderwildi OR, King DA (2014) Macroeconomic impacts of oil price volatility: mitigation and resilience. Front Energy 8(1):9–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. EIA (2017) Annual energy outlook 2017 with projections to 2050. United States Energy Information Administration (EIA). January 5, 2017 www.eia.gov/aeo
  51. Folse TM, West JL, Hymel MK, Troutman JP, Sharp L, Weifenbach D, McGinnis T, Rodrigue LB (2008) A Standard Operating Procedures Manual for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System; Wetlands Methods for Site Establishment, Data Collection, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control. Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, Baton Rouge, p 191Google Scholar
  52. Ford M, Cahoon DR, Lynch JC (1999) Restoring marsh elevation in a rapidly subsiding salt marsh by thin layer deposition of dredged material. Ecol Eng 12:189–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gardebroek C, Hernandez MA (2013) Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets. Energy Econ 40:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gaweesh A, Meselhe E (2016) Evaluation of sediment diversion design attributes and their impact on the capture efficiency. J Hydraul Eng 142(5):04016002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gosselink JG, Hatton R, Hopkinson CS (1984) Relationship of organic carbon and mineral content to bulk density in Louisiana Marsh soils. Soil Sci 137(3):177–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gowdy J, Erickson JD (2005) The approach of ecological economics. Camb J Econ 29(2):207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Groves DG, Sharon C (2013) Planning tool to support planning the future of coastal Louisiana. In: Peyronnin NS, Reed D (eds) Louisiana’s 2012 Coastal master plan technical analysis. J Coast Res, Special Issue No. 67Google Scholar
  58. Groves DG, Sharon C, Knopman D 2013. Planning tool to support louisiana’s decision making on coastal protection and restoration technical description. Technical report. The RAND CorporationGoogle Scholar
  59. Hatton RS, DeLaune RD, Patrick WH Jr (1983) Sedimentation, accretion, and subsidence in marshes of Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Limnol Oceanogr 28(3):494–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hollinberger TE (2010) Cost estimation and production evaluation for Hopper Dredges. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  61. Ji Q, Fan Y (2012) How does oil price volatility affect non-energy commodity markets? Appl Energy 89(1):273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Johnson DR, Fischbach JR, Ortiz DS (2013) Estimating surge-based flood risk with the coastal Louisiana risk assessment model. In: Peyronnin NS, Reed D (eds) Louisiana’s 2012 Coastal master plan technical analysis. J Coast Res, Special Issue 67Google Scholar
  63. Kerschner C, Prell C, Feng K, Hubacek K (2013) Economic vulnerability to peak oil. Glob Environ Chang 23(6):1424–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kenney MA, Hobbs FJ, Mohrig D, Huang H, Nittrouer JA, Kim W, Parker G (2013) Cost analysis of water and sediment diversions to optimize land building in the Mississippi River delta. Water Resour Res 49(6):3388–3405Google Scholar
  65. Ko JY, Day JW, Wilkins JG, Haywood J, Lane RR (2017) Challenges in collaborative governance for coastal restoration: lessons from the caernarvon river diversion in Louisiana. Coast Manag 45(2):125–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kramer N, Wohl E (2015) Driftcretions: The legacy impacts of driftwood on shoreline morphology. Geophys Res Lett 42(14):5855–5864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. LCWCRTF (Louisiana Coastal Wetlands Conservation and Restoration Task Force and the Wetlands Conservation and Restoration Authority). (1998) Coast 2050: Toward a Sustainable Coastal Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Natural Resources. Baton Rouge, p 161. Available online: http://www.lawater.lsu.edu/docs/2943_coast2050.pdf. Accessed 3 Mar 2017
  68. Leopold A (1970) A sand county almanac. Ballantine, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Meselhe E, McCorquodale JA, Shelden J, Dortch M, Brown TS, Elkan P, ..., Wang Z (2013) Ecohydrology component of Louisiana’s 2012 coastal master plan: mass-balance compartment model. J Coast Res 67(sp1):16–28Google Scholar
  70. Meselhe EA, Sadid KM, Allison MA (2016) Riverside morphological response to pulsed sediment diversions. Geomorphology 270(2016):184–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Murphy JT (2012) Fuel provisions for dredging projects. Proceedings of the Western Dredging Association (WEDA XXXII) Technical Conference and Texas A&M University (TAMU 43) Dredging Seminar, San Antonio, Texas, June 10–13, 2012Google Scholar
  72. Nyman JA, Baltz DM, Green M, Kaller MD, Leberg PL, Richards CP, Romaire RP, Soniat TM (2013) Likely Changes in habitat quality for fish and wildlife in coastal Louisiana during the next 50 years. In: Peyronnin NS, Reed DJ (eds) Louisiana’s 2012 coastal master plan technical analysis. J Coast Res, Special Issue 67Google Scholar
  73. Peyronnin N, Green M, Richards CP, Owens A, Reed D, Chamberlain J, … Belhadjali K (2013) Louisiana’s 2012 coastal master plan: overview of a science-based and publicly informed decision-making process. J Coast Res 67(sp1):1–15Google Scholar
  74. Roberts HH, DeLaune RD, White JR, Li C, Sasser CE, Braud D, Weeks E, Khalil S (2015) Floods and cold front passages: Impacts on coastal marshes in a river diversion setting (Wax Lake Delta Area, Louisiana). J Coast Res 315:1057–1068Google Scholar
  75. Rivera-Monroy VH, Branoff B, Meselhe E, McCorquodale A, Dortch M, Steyer GD, Visser J, Wang H (2013) Landscape-level estimation of nitrogen loss in coastal Louisiana wetlands: potential sinks under different restoration scenarios. In: Peyronnin NS, Reed D (eds) Louisiana’s 2012 Coastal master plan technical analysis. J Coast Res, Special Issue 67Google Scholar
  76. Sadorsky P (2014) Modeling volatility and correlations between emerging market stock prices and the prices of copper, oil and wheat. Energy Econ 43:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shafiee S, Topal E (2010) An overview of global gold market and gold price forecasting. Resour Policy 35(3):178–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Snedden GA, Cretini K, Patton B (2015) Inundation and salinity impacts to above- and belowground productivity in Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora in the Mississippi River deltaic plain: implications for using river diversions as restoration tools. Ecol Eng 81:133–139Google Scholar
  79. Syvitski JP, Kettner AJ, Overeem I, Hutton EW, Hannon MT, Brakenridge GR, Day J, Vörösmarty C, Saito Y, Giosan L, Nicholls RJ (2009) Sinking deltas due to human activities. Nat Geosci 2(10):681–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tessler ZD, Vörösmarty CJ, Grossberg M, Gladkova I, Aizenman H, Syvitski JPM, Foufoula-Georgiou E (2015) Profiling risk and sustainability in coastal deltas of the world. Science 349(6248):638–643Google Scholar
  81. Tverberg GE (2012) Oil supply limits and the continuing financial crisis. Energy 37(1):27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Twilley RR, Couvillion BR, Hossain I, Kaiser C, Owens AB, Steyer GD, Visser JM (2008) Coastal Louisiana ecosystem assessment and restoration program: the role of ecosystem forecasting in evaluating restoration planning in the Mississippi River deltaic plain. Am Fish Soc Symp 64:29–46Google Scholar
  83. USACE (US Army Corps of Engineers) (2004) Louisiana coastal area comprehensive coast wide ecosystem restoration study. US Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans, LAGoogle Scholar
  84. USGS (1997) Global warming, sea level rise, and coastal marsh survival, FS: 091–97. United States Geological Survey, Reston, p 2Google Scholar
  85. Visser JM, Duke-Sylvester SM, Carter J, Broussard WP III (2013) A computer model to forecast wetland vegetation changes resulting from restoration and protection in coastal Louisiana. In: Peyronnin NS, Reed DJ (eds) Louisiana’s 2012 Coastal master Plan technical analysis. J Coast Res, Special Issue 67Google Scholar
  86. Wang H, Steyer GD, Couvillion BR, Rybczyk JM, Beck HJ, Sleavin WJ et al (2014) Forecasting landscape effects of Mississippi River diversions on elevation and accretion in Louisiana deltaic wetlands under future environmental uncertainty scenarios. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 138:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Webb EC, Mendelssohn IA (1996) Factors affecting vegetation dieback of an oligohaline marsh in coastal Louisiana: field manipulation of salinity and submergence. Am J Bot 83:1429–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wiegman ARH (2017) Modeling the influence of energy and climate megatrends on future costs and benefits of marsh creation in the Mississippi delta. Master’s Thesis, Louisiana State University, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  89. Xu K, Bentley SJ, Robichaux P, Sha X, Yang H (2016) Implications of texture and erodibility for sediment retention in receiving basins of coastal Louisiana diversions. Water 8(1):26Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian R. H. Wiegman
    • 1
  • Jeffrey S. Rutherford
    • 1
  • John W. Day
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oceanography and Coastal SciencesLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations