• Nabil Sayed Embabi
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)


The Nile Delta is one of the large deltas in the world. It occupies at least ~25,000 km2. It extends below the Mediterranean Sea, covering an area that equals its continental area. The delta is composed of four successive deltas developed by the successive Niles, which occupied the Nile Valley from Late Miocene. Its sediments are composed of sand and gravel overlain by a thin layer of alluvial clay (the Nile silt), with a total thickness of ~4000 m. The delta is characterized by small/micro-forms, especially along the coastal fringes (i.e., coastal lagoons, dunes, marshes, and sabkhas), except for the sandy mounds known as “Turtle-Backs,” which spread in several localities in the east. All these forms have been subjected to anthropogenic modifications. The coasts have also been exposed to erosion especially along the promontories of the two Nile branches of Rosetta and Damietta. Due to global warming, it is expected that sea level will rise up inundating the lowlands along the coastal fringes, especially the lagoons and marshy areas, affecting all human activities.


The Nile Delta Egypt Nile branches Coastal lagoons Turtle-backs Sea level rise and coastal changes 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography, Faculty of ArtsAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

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