Gaullist “Telecracy” (1962–65)
Brizzi analyses the progressive personalisation and presidentalisation of the French political system that came into being in 1962 with the introduction of the direct election of the Head of State. The opposition to this reform from all political parties focused on the democratic risks that resulted from forging a close connection between the personalisation of the institution of the presidency and the intensive use that the Head of State made of television. The opposition openly accused the General of creating an authoritarian regime based on “telecracy”. However, as Brizzi notes, these accusations came precisely at the moment in which de Gaulle, for the first time in his political career, began to withdraw from appearing on television.