Authentic Leadership, Embodied Leadership, and Followership from a Multi-cultural Perspective

  • Sharon Davis Brown
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Leadership and Followership book series (PASTLEFO)

Abstract

This chapter uses a conceptual-theoretical framework to further knowledge about the effectiveness of various leadership and followership styles and the relationship between leadership, authentic leadership, embodied leadership, and followership after the technological revolution. Laban Movement Analysis, a nonverbal body–mind model, is applied to illustrate embodied leadership. The findings are that (1) leaders and followers are likely to be viewed as authentic when they synchronize their inner world (somatic sensations) with their outer expression (verbal language), (2) the country’s or region’s cultural climate impacts organisational culture and the structure of leader–follower interaction, and (3) the cultural climate can limit or prevent the adaptation of a minimal hierarchical (horizontal) structure.

Keywords

Authentic leadership Embodied leadership Followership Laban Movement Analysis Multi-cultural factors 

References

  1. Avolio, B., & Gardner, W. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 315–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avolio, B., Gardner, W., Walumbwa, F., Luthans, F., & May, D. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 801–823.Google Scholar
  3. Bartenieff, I., & Lewis, D. (1980). Body movement: Coping with the environment. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Bernhofen, D., & Brown, J. (2004). A direct test of the theory of comparative advantage: The case of Japan. Journal of Political Economy, 112(1), 48–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brendel, W., & Bennett, C. (2016). Learning to embody leadership through mindfulness and somatics practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 18(3), 409–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carmeli, A., Sheaffer, Z., Binyamin, G., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Shimoni, T. (2014). Transformational leadership and creative problem-solving: The mediating role of psychological safety and reflexivity. The Journal of Creative Behaviour, 48(2), 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carsten, M. K., Uhl-Bien, M., West, B. J., Patera, J. L., & McGregor, R. (2010). Exploring social constructions of followership: A qualitative study. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 543–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaleff, I. (1995). The courageous follower. San Francisco: Benett.Google Scholar
  9. Chaleff, I. (2009). The courageous follower: Standing up to and for our leaders (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  10. CNET. (2010, June 7). Steve Jobs demo fail. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znxQOPFg2mo
  11. Cohen-Almagor, R. (2014). Reconciling liberalism and Judaism? Human rights in Israel. In J. Carby-Hall (Ed.), Essays on human rights: A celebration of the life of Dr. Janusz (pp. 136–163). Warsaw, Poland: Ius et Lex Foundation.Google Scholar
  12. de Zilwa, D. (2014). A new conceptual framework for authentic followership. In L. M. Lapierre & M. K. Carsten (Eds.), Followership: What is it and why do people follow? (pp. 47–72). Bingley, UK: Emerald.Google Scholar
  13. Feldenkrais, M. (1972). Awareness through movement: Easy-to-do health exercises to improve your posture, vision, imagination, and personal awareness. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  14. Gardner, W., Cogliser, C., Davis, K., & Dickens, M. (2011). Authentic leadership: A review of the literature and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1120–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garon, S. (1994). Rethinking modernization and modernity in Japanese history: A focus on state-society relations. The Journal of Asian Studies, 53(2), 346–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gendlin, E. (1978). Focusing. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  17. Gordon, A. (1990). Japanese labour relations during the twentieth century. Journal of Labor Research, XI(3), 239–252.Google Scholar
  18. Greenwood, J. (1999). The third industrial revolution: Technology, productivity and income equality. Economic Review, 35(2), 2–12.Google Scholar
  19. Huntington, S. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  20. Isaacson, W. (2012). The real leadership lessons of Steve Jobs. Harvard Business Review, 90(4), 92–102.Google Scholar
  21. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindless meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  22. Kernis, M. (2003). Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kernis, M., & Goldman, B. (2006). From thought and experience to behavior and interpersonal relationships: A multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity. In A. Tesser, J. V. Wood, & D. A. Staple (Eds.), On building, defending, and regulating the self: A psychological perspective (pp. 31–52). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  24. Knickerbocker, B. (2011, August 25). Steve Jobs and Apple: How his vision transformed the way we work and play. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2011/0825/Steve-Jobs-and-Apple-How-his-vision-transformed-the-way-we-work-and-play
  25. Ladkin, D. (2013). From perception to flesh: A phenomenological account of the felt experience of leadership. Leadership, 9(3), 320–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ladkin, D., & Taylor, S. (2010). Enacting the ‘true self’: Towards a theory of embodied authentic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 64–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luthans, F. (2002). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behaviour. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(6), 695–706.Google Scholar
  28. Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. (2003). Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 241–258). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  29. McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  30. Meindl, J. (1995). The romance of leadership as a follower-centric theory: A social constructionist approach. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(3), 329–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moore, C.-L. (2005). Movement and making decisions: The body-mind connection in the workplace. New York: Dance & Movement Press.Google Scholar
  32. Moore, C.-L. (2014). Meaning in motion: Introducing Laban movement analysis. Denver, CO: MoveScapeCenter.Google Scholar
  33. Ouchi, W. (1981). Theory Z: How American business can meet with the Japanese challenge. Business Horizons, 24(6), 82–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pallaro, P. (Ed.). (1999). Authentic movement: A collection of essays by Mary Starks Whitehouse, Janet Adler and Joan Chodorow. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  35. Pearce, C., & Manz, C. (2005). The new silver bullets of leadership: The importance of self- and shared leadership in knowledge work. Organizational Dynamics, 34(2), 130–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Richardson, J., & Arthur, M. (2013). Just three stories: The career lessons behind Steve Jobs. Journal of Business and Management, 19(1), 45–57.Google Scholar
  37. Senor, D., & Singer, S. (2009). Start-up nation: The story of Israel’s economic miracle. New York: Twelve.Google Scholar
  38. Shamir, B. (2007). From passive recipients to active co-producers: Followers’ roles in the leadership process. In B. Shamir, R. Pillai, M. C. Bligh, & M. Uhl-Bien (Eds.), Follower-centered perspectives on leadership: A tribute to the memory of James R. Meindl (pp. ix–xxxvi). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  39. Shamir, B., & Eilam, G. (2005). ‘What’s your story?’ A life stories approach to authentic leadership development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 395–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sheets-Johnstone, M. (1981). Thinking in movement. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 39(4), 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sheets-Johnstone, M. (2010). Kinesthetic experience: Understanding movement inside and out. Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 5(2), 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stark, J. (2012, September 26). Highlights of Steve Jobs 2007 iPhone Announcement. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GE1pd3HktwA
  43. Steinberg, J. (2011, August 16). Just how expensive is it to live in Israel? Jewish Telegraph Agency. Retrieved from http://www.jta.org/2011/08/16/news-opinion/israel-middle-east/just-how-expensive-is-it-to-live-in-israel
  44. Theory X and Theory Y. (n.d.). Understanding team member motivation. Retrieved from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm
  45. Uhl-Bien, M., & Pillai, R. (2007). The romance of leadership and the social construction of followership. In B. Shamir, R. Pillai, M. C. Bligh, & M. Uhl-Bien (Eds.), Follower-centered perspectives on leadership: A tribute to the memory of James R. Meindl (pp. 187–210). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  46. Uhl-Bien, M., Riggio, R. E., Lowe, K. B., & Carsten, M. K. (2014). Followership theory: A review and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Walumbwa, F., Avolio, B., Gardner, W., Wernsing, T., & Peterson, S. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yu, H. (2013). Decoding leadership: How Steve Jobs transformed Apple to spearhead a technological informed economy. Journal of Business and Management, 19(1), 33–44.Google Scholar
  49. Zikic, J., & Klehe, U.-C. (2006). Job loss as a blessing in disguise: The role of career exploration and career planning in predicting reemployment quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(3), 391–409.Google Scholar
  50. Zikic, J., & Richardson, J. (2007). Unlocking the careers of business professionals following job loss: Sensemaking and career exploration of older workers. Canadian Journal of Administration Sciences, 24(1), 58–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon Davis Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Art of Business CoachingBeaumontUSA

Personalised recommendations