Leader Self-Awareness and Follower Psychological Empowerment Across Cultures

  • Tara Wernsing
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Leadership and Followership book series (PASTLEFO)

Abstract

Leader self-awareness is one of four components theorized in the conceptualization of authentic leadership. This study begins investigation into individual components of authentic leadership, first, by examining measurement invariance for leader self-awareness across ten national cultures, and second, by examining its relationship with follower psychological empowerment. Evidence for metric invariance was supported, but scalar invariance was not found, suggesting that comparing correlations of leader self-awareness with empowerment is warranted, but comparing average mean levels across cultures is not an apples-to-apples comparison. A positive relationship between leader self-awareness and follower empowerment was significant at the individual and work unit levels, and there were significance differences in effect sizes for some countries compared to the United States.

Keywords

Authentic leadership Leader self-awareness Follower empowerment Culture Measurement invariance 

References

  1. Albert, S., Ashforth, B. E., & Dutton, J. E. (2000). Organizational identity and identification: Charting new waters and building new bridges. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 13–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alimo-Metcalfe, B. (1998). 360 degree feedback and leadership development. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 6(1), 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashford, S. J., & Tsui, A. S. (1991). Self-regulation for managerial effectiveness: The role of active feedback seeking. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 251–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atwater, L. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (1992). Does self-other agreement on leadership perceptions moderate the validity of leadership and performance predictions? Personnel Psychology, 45(1), 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avolio, B. J. (2005). Leadership development in balance: Made/born. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  6. Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Badaracco, J. L. (1998). The discipline of building character. Harvard Business Review, 76, 114–125.Google Scholar
  8. Bergkvist, L., & Rossiter, J. R. (2007). The predictive validity of multiple-item versus single-item measures of the same constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(2), 175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bliese, P. D. (1998). Group size, ICC values, and group-level correlations: A simulation. Organizational Research Methods, 1(4), 355–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brislin, R. W. (1983). Cross-cultural research in psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 34(1), 363–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 230–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Byrne, B. (1998). Structural equation modeling: Basic concepts, application, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  13. Byrne, B. M., & Watkins, D. (2003). The issue of measurement invariance revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(2), 155–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caza, A., Bagozzi, R. P., Woolley, L., Levy, L., & Caza, B. B. (2010). Psychological capital and authentic leadership. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 2(1), 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(3), 464–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, F. F. (2008). What happens if we compare chopsticks with forks? The impact of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1005–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, F. F., Curran, P. J., Bollen, K. A., Kirby, J., & Paxton, P. (2008). An empirical evaluation of the use of fixed cutoff points in RMSEA test statistic in structural equation models. Sociological Methods and Research, 36(4), 462–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Church, A. H. (1997). Managerial self-awareness in high-performing individuals in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Day, D. V., & Dragoni, L. (2015). Leadership development: An outcome-oriented review based on time and levels of analyses. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 2(1), 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. New York: D. C. Heath and Company.Google Scholar
  22. Duval, S., & Wicklund, R. A. (1972). A theory of objective self-awareness. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  23. Earley, P. C. (1987). Intercultural training for managers: A comparison of documentary and interpersonal methods. Academy of Management Journal, 30(4), 685–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ellemers, N., De Gilder, D., & Haslam, S. A. (2004). Motivating individuals and groups at work: A social identity perspective on leadership and group performance. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 459–478.Google Scholar
  25. Fan, X., & Sivo, S. A. (2005). Sensitivity of fit indexes to misspecified structural or measurement model components: Rationale of two-index strategy revisited. Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 343–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gallup, G. G. (1982). Self-awareness and the emergence of mind in primates. American Journal of Primatology, 2(3), 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. (2005). “Can you see the real me?” A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 343–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geldhof, G. J., Preacher, K. J., & Zyphur, M. J. (2014). Reliability estimation in a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis framework. Psychological Methods, 19(1), 72–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. George, W. (2003). Authentic leadership: Rediscovering the secrets to creating lasting value. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  31. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  32. Gosling, S., Rentfrow, P., Swann, W. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 504–528.Google Scholar
  33. Guilford, J. P. (1952). When not to factor analyze. Psychological Bulletin, 49(1), 26–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoch, J. E., Bommer, W. H., Dulebohn, J. H., & Wu, D. (2016). Do ethical, authentic, and servant leadership explain variance above and beyond transformational leadership? A meta-analysis. Journal of Management. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316665461.
  35. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jak, S. (2017). Testing and explaining differences in common and residual factors across many countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(1), 75–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  39. Jang, S., Kim, E. S., Cao, C., Allen, T. D., Cooper, C. L., Lapierre, L. M., et al. (2017). Measurement invariance of the satisfaction with life scale across 26 countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(4), 560–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jung, D. I., & Sosik, J. J. (2002). Transformational leadership in work groups: The role of empowerment, cohesiveness, and collective-efficacy on perceived group performance. Small Group Research, 33(3), 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Katz, R. L. (1956). Human relations skills can be sharpened. Harvard Business Review, 34, 61–73.Google Scholar
  42. Kernis, M. H. (2003). Toward a conceptualization of optimal self- esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kernis, M. H., & Goldman, B. M. (2006). A multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity: Theory and research. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 38, pp. 283–357). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  44. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  46. Korte, R. (2003). Biases in decision making and implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(4), 440–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee, J. A. (1966). Cultural analysis in overseas operations. The International Executive, 8(3), 5–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. London, M. (1995). Self and interpersonal insight: how people gain understanding of themselves and others in organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. London, M. (2002). Leadership development: Paths to self-insight and professional growth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership: A positive developmental approach. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241–261). San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  51. MacCallum, R. C. (1995). Model specification: Procedures, strategies, and related issues. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 16–36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. MacLean, P. D. (1990). The triune brain in evolution: Role in paleocerebral functions. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  53. Marsh, H. W., & Hau, K.-T. (2003). Big-fish – Little-pond effect on academic self-concept: A cross-cultural (26-country) test of the negative effects of academically selective schools. American Psychologist, 58(5), 364–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCauley, C., & Van Velsor, E. (2003). The center for creative leadership handbook of leadership development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  55. Medsker, G. J., Williams, L. J., & Holahan, P. J. (1994). A review of current practices for evaluating causal models in organizational behavior and human resources management research. Journal of Management, 20(2), 439–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Miles, M. (1960). Human relations training: Processes and outcomes. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 7(4), 301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moshavi, D., Brown, F. W., & Dodd, N. G. (2003). Leader self-awareness and its relationship to subordinate attitudes and performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(7), 407–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Neider, L. L., & Schriesheim, C. A. (2011). The authentic leadership inventory (ALI): Development and empirical tests. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 1146–1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Peus, C., Wesche, J., Streicher, B., Braun, S., & Frey, D. (2012). Authentic leadership: An empirical test of its antecedents, consequences, and mediating mechanisms. Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 331–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Quinn, R. (2005). Moments of greatness: Entering the fundamental state of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 83, 74–83.Google Scholar
  61. Ravlin, E. C., & Meglino, B. M. (1987). Effect of values on perception and decision making: A study of alternative work values measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(4), 666–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rego, A., Vitória, A., Magalhães, A., Ribeiro, N., & e Cunha, M. P. (2013). Are authentic leaders associated with more virtuous, committed and potent teams? The Leadership Quarterly, 24, 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shrout, P., & Fleiss, J. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 420–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sluss, D. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (2007). Relational identity and identification: Defining ourselves through work relationships. Academy of Management Review, 32(1), 9–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Snijders, T., & Bosker, R. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  67. Sosik, J. J. (2001). Self-other agreement on charismatic leadership: Relationships with work attitudes and managerial performance. Group & Organization Management, 26(4), 484–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sosik, J. J., & Dworakivsky, A. C. (1998). Self-concept based aspects of the charismatic leader: More than meets the eye. Leadership Quarterly, 9(4), 503–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sosik, J. J., & Megerian, L. E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance. Group & Organization Management, 24(3), 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 893–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sturm, R. E., Taylor, S. N., Atwater, L. E., & Braddy, P. W. (2014). Leader self-awareness: An examination and implications of women’s under-prediction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(5), 657–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Taylor, S. N. (2010). Redefining leader self-awareness by integrating the second component of self-awareness. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(4), 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tekleab, A. G., Sims, H. P., Yun, S., Tesluk, P. E., & Cox, J. (2007). Are we on the same page? Effects of self-awareness of empowering and transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(3), 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666–681.Google Scholar
  76. Van Velsor, E., Taylor, S., & Leslie, J. B. (1993). An examination of the relationships among self-perception accuracy, self-awareness, gender, and leader effectiveness. Human Resource Management, 32(2–3), 249–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. van Woerkom, M., & Meyers, M. C. (2015). My strengths count! Human Resource Management, 54(1), 81–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1), 4–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wanous, J. P., & Reichers, A. E. (1997). Overall job satisfaction: How good are single-item measures? Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Weil, L. G., Fleming, S. M., Dumontheil, I., Kilford, E. J., Weil, R. S., Rees, G., et al. (2013). The development of metacognitive ability in adolescence. Conscious Cognition, 22(1), 264–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wheeler, M. A., Stuss, D. T., & Tulving, E. (1997). Toward a theory of episodic memory: The frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 331–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wiest, G. (2012). Neural and mental hierarchies. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(516), 1–8.Google Scholar
  84. Wohlers, A. J., & London, M. (1989). Ratings of managerial characteristics: Evaluation difficulty, co-worker agreement, and self-awareness. Personnel Psychology, 42, 235–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tara Wernsing
    • 1
  1. 1.IE Business SchoolIE UniversityMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations