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We now turn to the study of more specialized laws. As was seen in Section 1.4, special properties of binary relations such as symmetry or functionality can often be expressed by means of equations in the language of relation algebras, and it is natural to formulate and study laws that apply to elements satisfying abstract versions of these properties. In the first three sections below, we look at abstract versions of properties associated with symmetric relations, transitive relations, and equivalence relations. In subsequent sections, we look at abstract versions of properties associated with various types of ideal elements, with rectangles, and with functions.
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