Advertisement

Achievement Motivation

  • Joachim C. Brunstein
  • Heinz Heckhausen
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses the influential theory of achievement motivation by Atkinson (Psychol Rev 64: 359–372, 1957) including the preceding work by McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, and Lowell (The achievement motive, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1953) and its development into the self-evaluation model by Heckhausen (Fear of failure as a self-reinforcing motive system. In: Sarason IG, Spielberger C (Hrsg.) Stress and anxiety, Vol. II, pp 117–128. Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 1975b). After an introduction to the ontogenetic foundation of achievement-motivated behavior, which focuses on the discussion of standards of validity, the chapter will take a look at the development of picture-story tests which can be used to measure individual differences in achievement motivation and its two facets “hope for success” and “fear of failure.” The chapter will introduce studies of their validity and central findings on Atkinson’s model of risk behavior as well as its extension for the prediction of complex behavior. Another section is dedicated to Heckhausen’s model of self-evaluation and its application in academic contexts. Finally, the chapter will address some unanswered questions in this research area.

References

  1. Ach, N. (1910). Über den Willensakt und das Temperament. Leipzig, Germany: Quelle & Meyer.Google Scholar
  2. Alker, H. A. (1972). Is personality situationally specific or intrapsychically consistent. Journal of Personality, 40, 1–16.Google Scholar
  3. Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York, NY: Holt.Google Scholar
  4. Allport, G. W. (1953). The trend in motivation theory. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 23, 107–119.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Ames, C., & Ames, R. (1984). Systems of student and teacher motivation: Toward a qualitative definition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 535–556.Google Scholar
  6. Andrews, J. D. W. (1967). The achievement motive and advancement in two types of organizations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 163–168.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkinson, J. W. (1953). The achievement motive and recall of interrupted and completed tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46, 381–390.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review, 64, 359–372.Google Scholar
  9. Atkinson, J. W. (Ed.). (1958a). Motives in fantasy, action, and society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  10. Atkinson, J. W. (1958b). Towards experimental analysis of human motivation in terms of motives, expectancies and incentives. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (pp. 288–305). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  11. Atkinson, J. W. (1964). An introduction to motivation. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  12. Atkinson, J. W. (1974a). Motivational determinants of intellective performance and cumulative achievement. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 389–410). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  13. Atkinson, J. W. (1974b). Strength of motivation and efficiency of performance. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 193–218). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  14. Atkinson, J. W. (1981). Studying personality in the context of an advanced motivational psychology. American Psychologist, 36, 171–178.Google Scholar
  15. Atkinson, J. W. (1987). Michigan studies of fear of failure. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Motivation, intention, and volition (pp. 47–59). Berlin, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Atkinson, J. W., & Birch, D. A. (1970). The dynamics of action. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Atkinson, J. W., & Birch, D. (1974). The dynamics of achievement-oriented activity. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 271–325). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  18. Atkinson, J. W., & Cartwright, D. (1964). Some neglected variables in contemporary conceptions of decision and performance. Psychological Reports, 14, 575–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Atkinson, J. W., & Feather, N. T. (Eds.). (1966). A theory of achievement motivation. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Atkinson, J. W., & Litwin, G. H. (1960). Achievement motive and test anxiety conceived as motive to approach success and motive to avoid failure. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Atkinson, J. W., & McClelland, D. C. (1948). The projective expression of needs: II. The effect of different intensities of the hunger drive in thematic apperception. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 33, 643–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Atkinson, J. W., & Raynor, J. O. (1974). Motivation and achievement. Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  23. Atkinson, J. W., & Reitman, W. R. (1956). Performance as a function of motive strength and expectancy of goal attainment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 53, 361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Atkinson, J. W., Lens, W., & O’Malley, P. M. (1976). Motivation and ability: Interactive psychological determinants of intellective performance, educational achievement, and each other. In W. H. Sewell, R. M. Hauser, & D. L. Featherman (Eds.), Schooling and achievement in American society (pp. 29–60). New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  25. Atkinson, J. W., Bongort, K., & Price, L. H. (1977). Explorations using computer simulation to comprehend TAT measurement of motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 1, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Baumann, N., Kazen, M., & Kuhl, J. (2010). Implicit motives: A look from Personality Systems Interaction theory. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 375–403). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Choking under pressure: Self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 610–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Baumeister, R. F., & Showers, C. (1986). A review of paradoxical performance effects: Choking under pressure in sports and mental tests. European Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 361–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bäumler, G. (1975). Beeinflussung der Leistungsmotivation durch Psychopharmaka: I. Die 4 bildthematischen Hauptvariablen. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 22, 1–14.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1980). Achievement motivation and economic growth: A replication. Personality und Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 210–215.Google Scholar
  31. Biernat, M. (1989). Motives and values to achieve: Different constructs with different effects. Journal of Personality, 57, 69–95.Google Scholar
  32. Birney, R. C., Burdick, H., & Teevan, R. C. (1969). Fear of failure motivation. New York, NY: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  33. Blankenship, V. (1984). Computer anxiety and self-concept of ability. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), The self in anxiety, stress, and depression (pp. 151–158). London, UK: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  34. Blankenship, V. (1987). A computer-based measure of resultant achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 361–372.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Blankenship, V. (2010). Computer-based modeling, assessment, and coding of implicit motives. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 186–208). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Blankenship, V., & Zoota, A. L. (1998). Comparing power imagery in TATs written by hand or on the computer and computing reliability. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 30, 441–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Blankenship, V., Vega, C. M., Ramos, E., Romero, K., Warren, K., Keenan, K., Barton, V., Vasquez, J. R., & Sullivan, A. (2006). Using the multifaceted Rasch model to improve the TAT/PSE measure of need for achievement. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 100–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Boekaerts, M. (2003). Towards a model that integrates motivation, affect and learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Monograph Series II, 2, 173–189.Google Scholar
  39. Bosson, J. K., Swann, W. B., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2000). Stalking the perfect measure of implicit self-esteem: The blind men and the elephant revisited? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 631–643.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Brackhane, R. (1976). Bezugssysteme im Leistungsverhalten. Unveröffentlichte Dissertation, Philosophische Fakultät, Münster, Germany.Google Scholar
  41. Brauckmann, L. (1976). Erstellung und Erprobung eines Lehrerverhaltenstrainings zur Veränderung der motivanregenden Bedingungen des Unterrichts. Bochum, Germany: Unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, RUB, Psychologisches Institut.Google Scholar
  42. Breckler, S. J., & Greenwald, A. G. (1986). Motivational facets of the self. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (pp. 145–164). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  43. Brunstein, J. C. (1995). Motivation nach Misserfolg: Zur Bedeutung von Commitment und Substitution. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  44. Brunstein, J. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1996). Effects of failure on subsequent performance: The importance of self-defining goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 395–407.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Brunstein, J. C., & Hoyer, S. (2002). Implizites versus explizites Leistungsstreben: Befunde zur Unabhängigkeit zweier Motivationssysteme. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 16, 51–62.Google Scholar
  46. Brunstein, J. C., & Maier, G. W. (2005). Das Streben nach persönlichen Zielen: Emotionales Wohlbefinden und proaktive Entwicklung über die Lebensspanne. In G. Jüttemann & H. Thomae (Eds.), Persönlichkeit und Entwicklung (pp. 155–188). Weinheim, Germany: Beltz.Google Scholar
  47. Brunstein, J. C., & Schmitt, C. H. (2003). Prüfung der konvergenten, diskriminanten und prädiktiven Validität von Leistungsmotiv-IATs, -TATs und -Fragebögen. DFG-Bericht. Universität Potsdam.Google Scholar
  48. Brunstein, J. C., & Schmitt, C. H. (2004). Assessing individual differences in achievement motivation with the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 536–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Brunstein, J. C., & Schmitt, C. H. (2010). Assessing individual differences in achievement motivation with the Implicit Association Test: Predictive validity of a chronometric measure of the self-concept “Me = Successful”. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 151–185). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bryk, A., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models for social and behavioral research: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  51. Butler, R. (1993). Effects of task- and ego-achievement goals on information-seeking during task engagement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 18–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Butler, R. (1999). Information seeking and achievement motivation in middle childhood and adolescence: The role of conceptions of ability. Developmental Psychology, 35, 146–163.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Coats, E. J., Janoff-Bulman, R., & Alpert, N. (1996). Approach versus avoidance goals: Differences in self-evaluation and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1057–1067.Google Scholar
  55. Collins, C. J., Hanges, P. J., & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relation of achievement motivation to entrepreneurial behavior: A meta-analysis. Human Performance, 17, 95–117.Google Scholar
  56. Cooper, W. H. (1983). An achievement motivation nomological network. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 841–861.Google Scholar
  57. Covington, M. V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Covington, M. V., & Omelich, C. L. (1979). Are arousal attributions causal? A path analysis of the cognitive model of achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1487–1504.Google Scholar
  59. Covington, M. V., & Omelich, C. L. (1991). Need achievement revisited: Verification of Atkinson’s original 2×2 model. In C. D. Spielberger, I. G. Sarason, Z. Kulcsár, & G. L. van Heck (Eds.), Stress and emotion: Anxiety, anger, and curiosity (Vol. Bd. 14, pp. 85–105). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  60. Covington, M. V., & Roberts, B. W. (1994). Self-worth and college achievement: Motivational and personality correlates. In P. R. Pintrich, D. R. Brown, & C. E. Weinstein (Eds.), Student motivation, cognition, and learning (pp. 157–188). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Cronbach, L. J. (1990). Essentials of psychological testing (5th ed.). New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  62. Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London, UK: John Murray. (1965, Chicago: University of Chicago Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. De Castella, K., Byrne, D., & Covington, M. (2013). Unmotivated or motivated to fail? A cross-cultural study of achievement motivation, fear of failure, and student engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 861–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. DeCharms, R., & Moeller, G. H. (1962). Values expressed in American children’s readers: 1800–1950. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 64, 136–142.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. DeCharms, R., Morrison, H. W., Reitman, W., & McClelland, D. C. (1955). Behavioral correlates of directly and indirectly measured achievement motivation. In D. C. McClelland (Ed.), Studies in motivation (pp. 414–423). New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  66. Dickhäuser, O., & Rheinberg, F. (2003). Bezugsnormorientierung: Erfassung, Probleme, Perspektiven. In J. Stiensmeier-Pelster & F. Rheinberg (Eds.), Diagnostik von Motivation und Selbstkonzept (pp. 41–55). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  67. Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040–1048.Google Scholar
  68. Dweck, C. S., & Elliott, E. S. (1983). Achievement motivation. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 643–691). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  69. Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109–132.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R., & Blumenfeld, P. B. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64, 830–847.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. Bd. 3, 5. Aufl. ed., pp. 1017–1095). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  72. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1984). Die Biologie des menschlichen Verhaltens. Grundriss der Humanethologie. München, Germany: Piper.Google Scholar
  73. Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the “classic” and “contemporary” approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of achievement motivation. In M. Maehr & P. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 243–279). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  74. Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169–189.Google Scholar
  75. Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218–232.Google Scholar
  76. Elliot, A. J., & Haraciewicz, J. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 461–475.Google Scholar
  77. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2×2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Engeser, S., Rheinberg, F., & Möller, M. (2009). Achievement motive imagery in German schoolbooks: A pilot study testing McClelland’s hypothesis. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 110–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Engeser, S., Hollricher, I., & Baumann, N. (2013). The stories children’s books tell us: Motive-related imageries in children’s books and their relation to academic performance and crime rates. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 421–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Engeser, S., Euen, W., & Bos, B. (2015). Leistungsthematischer Gehalt von Schulbüchern und Bildungsleistung in der Grundschule. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 29, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Engeser, S., Baumann, N., & Baum, I. (2016). Schoolbook texts: Behavioral achievement in math and language. PLoS One, 11(3).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Entin, E. E. (1974). Effects of achievement-oriented and affiliative motives on private and public performance. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 219–236). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  83. Entwisle, D. R. (1972). To dispel fantasies about fantasy-based measures of achievement motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 77, 377–391.Google Scholar
  84. Ericsson, K. A. (Ed.). (1996). The road to excellence. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  85. Feather, N. T. (1959). Success probability and choice behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 257–266.Google Scholar
  86. Feather, N. T. (1961). The relationship of persistence at a task to expectation of success and achievement related motives. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 552–561.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Feather, N. T. (1962). The study of persistence. Psychological Bulletin, 59, 94–115.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Feather, N. T. (1963). The relationship of expectation of success to reporter probability, task structure and achievement-related motivation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 231–238.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Feather, N. T. (1966). Effects of prior success and failure on expectations of success and subsequent performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 287–298.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Feather, N. T. (1967). Valence of outcome and expectation of success in relation to task difficulty and perceived locus of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 372–386.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.Google Scholar
  92. Fineman, S. (1977). The achievement motive construct and its measurement: Where are we now? British Journal of Psychology, 68, 1–2.Google Scholar
  93. Fisch, R., & Schmalt, H.-D. (1970). Vergleich von TAT und Fragebogendaten der Leistungsmotivation. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 17, 608–633.Google Scholar
  94. Fodor, E. M., & Carver, R. A. (2000). Achievement and power motives, performance feedback, and creativity. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 380–396.Google Scholar
  95. French, E. G. (1955). Some characteristics of achievement motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50, 232–236.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. French, E. G. (1958a). Development of a measure of complex motivation. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (pp. 242–248). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  97. French, E. G. (1958b). Effects of the interaction of motivation and feedback on task performance. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (pp. 400–408). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  98. French, E. G., & Lesser, G. S. (1964). Some characteristics of the achievement motive in women. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68, 119–128.Google Scholar
  99. Freud, S. (1952). Die Abwehrneuropsychosen. (GW, Bd. I, 1894). Frankfurt, Germany: Fischer.Google Scholar
  100. Frey, R. S. (1984). Does n-achievement cause economic development? A cross-lagged panel analysis of the McClelland thesis. Journal of Social Psychology, 122, 67–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Fries, S. (2002). Wollen und Können. Münster, Germany: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  102. Fries, S., Lund, B., & Rheinberg, F. (1999). Lässt sich das Training induktiven Denkens durch gleichzeitige Motivförderung optimieren? Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 13, 37–49.Google Scholar
  103. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Fyans, L. J., Salili, M., Maehr, M. L., & Desai, K. A. (1983). A cross-cultural exploration into the meaning of achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1000–1013.Google Scholar
  105. Geppert, U., & Heckhausen, H. (1990). Ontogenese der Emotion. In K. R. Scherer (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Psychologie der Emotion (Vol. IV, pp. 115–213). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  106. Gjesme, T. (1971). Motive to achieve success and motive to avoid failure in relation to school performance for pupils of different ability levels. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 15, 81–99.Google Scholar
  107. Gjesme, T., & Nygard, R. (1970). Achievement-related motives: Theoretical considerations and construction of a measuring instrument. Unpublished manuscript, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  108. Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Gruber, N., & Kreuzpointner, L. (2013). Measuring the reliability of picture story exercises like the TAT. PLoS One, 8(11).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Haber, R. N., & Alpert, R. (1958). The role of situation and picture cues in projective measurement of the achievement motive. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (pp. 644–663). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  112. Halisch, F. (1986). Operante und respondente Verfahren zur Messung des Leistungsmotivs. München, Germany: Max-Planck-Institut für psychologische Forschung.Google Scholar
  113. Halisch, F., & Heckhausen, H. (1988). Motive-dependent vs. ability-dependent valence functions for success and failure. In F. Halisch & J. van den Bercken (Eds.), Intentional perspectives on achievement and task motivation. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  114. Hall, J. L., Stanton, S. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2010). Biopsychological and neural processes of implicit motivation. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 279–307). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hamilton, J. O. (1974). Motivation and risk-taking behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 856–864.Google Scholar
  116. Heckhausen, H. (1960). Die Problematik des Projektionsbegriffs und die Grundlagen und Grundannahmen des Thematischen Auffassungstests. Psychologische Beiträge, 5, 53–80.Google Scholar
  117. Heckhausen, H. (1963). Hoffnung und Furcht in der Leistungsmotivation. Meisenheim, Germany: Hain.Google Scholar
  118. Heckhausen, H. (1964). Über die Zweckmäßigkeit einiger Situationsbedingungen bei der inhaltsanalytischen Erfassung der Motivation. Psychologische Forschung, 27, 244–259.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Heckhausen, H. (1968). Achievement motive research: Current problems and some contributions toward a general theory of motivation. In W. J. Arnold (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 103–174). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  120. Heckhausen, H. (1969). Allgemeine Psychologie in Experimenten. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  121. Heckhausen, H. (1972). Die Interaktion der Sozialisationsvariablen in der Genese des Leistungsmotivs. In C. F. Graumann (Ed.), Handbuch der Psychologie (Vol. Bd. 7/2, pp. 955–1019). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  122. Heckhausen, H. (1974). Leistung und Chancengleichheit. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  123. Heckhausen, H. (1975a). Fear of failure as a self-reinforcing motive system. In I. G. Sarason & C. Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. II, pp. 117–128). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  124. Heckhausen, H. (1975b). Effort expenditure, aspiration level and self-evaluation before and after unexpected performance shifts. Unpublished manuscript, Ruhr University, Institute of Psychology, Bochum, Germany.Google Scholar
  125. Heckhausen, H. (1977a). Achievement motivation and its constructs: A cognitive model. Motivation and emotion (Vol. 1, 4, pp. 283–329). New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  126. Heckhausen, H. (1977b). Motivation: Kognitionspsychologische Aufspaltung eines summarischen Konstrukts. Psychologische Rundschau, 28, 175–189.Google Scholar
  127. Heckhausen, H. (1980). Motivation und Handeln. Lehrbuch der Motivationspsychologie. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  128. Heckhausen, H. (1984). Emergent achievement behavior: Some early developments. In J. Nicholls (Ed.), Advances in achievement motivation (pp. 1–32). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  129. Heckhausen, H. (1986). Why some time out might benefit achievement motivation research. In J. H. L. van den Bercken, E. E. J. DeBruyn, & T. C. M. Bergen (Eds.), Achievement and task motivation (pp. 7–39). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  130. Heckhausen, H. (1987). Perspektiven einer Psychologie des Wollens. In H. Heckhausen, P. M. Gollwitzer, & F. E. Weinert (Eds.), Jenseits des Rubikon: Der Wille in den Humanwissenschaften (pp. 121–142). Berlin, Germany: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Heckhausen, H., & Kuhl, J. (1985). From wishes to action: The dead ends and short cuts on the long way to action. In M. Frese & L. Sabini (Eds.), Goal-directed behavior: Psychological theory and research on action (pp. 134–160., 367–395). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  132. Heckhausen, H., & Rheinberg, F. (1980). Lernmotivation im Unterricht, erneut betrachtet. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 8, 7–47.Google Scholar
  133. Heckhausen, H., & Roelofsen, I. (1962). Anfänge und Entwicklung der Leistungsmotivation: (I) Im Wetteifer des Kleinkindes. Psychologische Forschung, 26, 313–397.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Heckhausen, H., & Strang, H. (1988). Efficiency under maximal performance demands: Exertion control, an individual-difference variable? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 489–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Heckhausen, H., Schmalt, H.-D., & Schneider, K. (1985). Achievement motivation in perspective. New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  136. Helmke, A., & Weinert, F. E. (1997). Bedingungsfaktoren schulischer Leistungen. In F. E. Weinert (Ed.), Psychologie des Unterrichts und der Schule, Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Themenbereich D, Serie I: Pädagogische Psychologie (Vol. 3, pp. 71–176). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  137. Henle, M. (1944). The influence of valence on substitution. Journal of Psychology, 17, 11–19.Google Scholar
  138. Hermans, H. J. M. (1970). A questionnaire measure of achievement motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54, 353–363.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Hesse, F. W., Spies, K., & Lüer, G. (1983). Einfluß motivationaler Faktoren auf das Problemlöseverhalten im Umgang mit komplexen Problemen. Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie, 30, 400–424.Google Scholar
  140. Higgins, R. L., Snyder, C. R., & Berglas, S. (Eds.). (1990). Self-handicapping: The paradox that isn’t. New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  141. Hillgruber, A. (1912). Fortlaufende Arbeit und Willensbetätigung. Leipzig, Germany: Quelle & Meyer.Google Scholar
  142. Hodoka, A., & Fincham, F. D. (1995). Origins of children’s helpless and mastery patterns in the family. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 375–385.Google Scholar
  143. Hofer, J. (2010). Research on implicit motives across cultures. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 433–467). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Hofer, J., & Chasiotis, A. (2004). Methodological considerations of applying a TAT-type picture-story-test in cross-cultural research: A comparison of German and Zambian adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 224–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Hofer, J., Busch, H., Bender, M., Ming, L., & Hagemeyer, B. (2015). Arousal of achievement motivation among student samples in three different cultural contexts: Self and social standards of evaluation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, 758–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Hogenraad, R. (2005). What the words of war can tell us about the risk of war. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 11, 137–151.Google Scholar
  147. Horner, M. S. (1974a). Performance of men in noncompetitive and interpersonal competitive achievement-oriented situations. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 237–254). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  148. Horner, M. S. (1974b). The measurement and behavioral implications of fear of success in women. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 91–117). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  149. Hyland, M. E., Curtis, C., & Mason, D. (1985). Fear of success: Motive and cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1669–1677.Google Scholar
  150. Jacobs, B. (1958). A method for investigating the cue characteristics of pictures. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (pp. 617–629). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  151. Jagacinski, C. M., & Nicholls, J. G. (1987). Competence and affect in task involvement and ego involvement: The impact of social comparison information. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 107–114.Google Scholar
  152. Jones, E. E., Rock, L., Shaver, K. G., Goethals, G. R., & Ward, L. M. (1968). Pattern of performance and ability attribution: An unexpected primacy effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 317–340.Google Scholar
  153. Jopt, U.-J. (1974). Extrinsische Motivation und Leistungsverhalten. Unveröffentlichte Dissertation, RUB, Fakultät für Philosophie, Pädagogik, Psychologie, Bochum, Germany.Google Scholar
  154. Karabenick, S. A. (1972). Valence of success and failure as a function of achievement motives and locus of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 101–110.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Karabenick, S. A., & Yousseff, Z. I. (1968). Performance as a function of achievement level and perceived difficulty. Journal of Personality und Social Psychology, 10, 414–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kaufmann, I. C., & Rosenblum, L. A. (1969). The reaction of separation from mother on the emotional behavior of infant monkeys. Animals of the New York Academy of Science, 159, 681–695.Google Scholar
  157. Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The ‘Trier Social Stress Test’ – A tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28, 76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Klinger, E. (1967). Modelling effects on achievement imagery. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Koestner, R., & McClelland, D. C. (1990). Perspectives on competence motivation. In L. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality theory and research (pp. 527–548). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  160. Koestner, R., Weinberger, J., & McClelland, D. C. (1991). Task-intrinsic and social-extrinsic sources of arousal for motives assessed in fantasy and self-report. Journal of Personality, 59, 57–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Krampen, G. (1987). Differential effects of teacher comments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Krau, E. (1982). Motivational feedback loops in the structure of action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 1030–1040.Google Scholar
  163. Krohne, H. W. (1988). Erziehungsstilforschung: Neuere theoretische Ansätze und empirische Befunde. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 2, 157–172.Google Scholar
  164. Kubinger, K. D., & Ebenhöh, H. (1996). Arbeitshaltungen (AHA): Objektiver Persönlichkeitstest. Mödling, Austria: Schuhfried.Google Scholar
  165. Kubinger, K. D., & Litzenberger, M. (2003). Zur Validität der Objektiven Persönlichkeits-Test-Batterie “Arbeitshaltungen”. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 24, 119–133.Google Scholar
  166. Kuhl, J. (1977). Miß- und prozeßtheoretische Analysen einiger Person- und Situationsparameter der Leistungsmotivation. Bonn, Germany: Bouvier.Google Scholar
  167. Kuhl, J. (1978a). Situations-, reaktions- und personbezogene Konsistenz des Leistungsmotivs bei der Messung mittels des Heckhausen TAT. Archiv für Psychologie, 130, 37–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. Kuhl, J. (1978b). Standard setting and risk preference: An elaboration of the theory of achievement motivation and an empirical test. Psychological Review, 85, 239–248.Google Scholar
  169. Kuhl, J. (1983). Motivation, Konflikt und Handlungskontrolle. Berlin, Germany: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Kuhl, J. (2000). A functional-design approach to motivation and volition: The dynamics of personality systems interactions. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Self-regulation: Directions and challenges for future research (pp. 111–169). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  171. Kuhl, J. (2001). Motivation und Persönlichkeit. Die Interaktion psychischer Systeme. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  172. Kuhl, J., & Scheffer, D. (1999). Der operante Multi-Motiv-Test (OMT): Manual. Osnabrück, Germany: Universität Osnabrück.Google Scholar
  173. Kukla, A. (1972a). Attributional determinants of achievement-related behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 166–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Kukla, A. (1972b). Foundations of an attributional theory of performance. Psychological Review, 79, 454–470.Google Scholar
  175. Kukla, A. (1978). An attributional theory of choice. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 11, pp. 113–144). New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  176. Lang, J. W. B. (2014). A dynamic Thurstonian item response theory of motive expression in the Picture Story Exercise: Solving the internal consistency paradox of the PSE. Psychological Review, 121, 481–500.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Langens, T. A., & Schmalt, H.-D. (2008). Motivational traits: New directions and measuring motives with the Multi-Motive-Grid (MMG). In G. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. Saklowske (Eds.), The Sage handbook of personality theory and assessment, Vol. 1: Personality theories and models (pp. 523–544). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. van Lawick-Godall, J. (1968). The behavior of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Area. Animal Behavior Monographs, 1, 161–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Lewin, K. (1926a). Untersuchungen zur Handlungs- und Affekt-Psychologie, I: Vorbemerkungen über die psychischen Kräfte und Energien und über die Struktur der Seele. Psychologische Forschung, 7, 294–329.Google Scholar
  180. Lewin, K. (1926b). Untersuchungen zur Handlungs- und Affekt-Psychologie, II.: Vorsatz, Wille und Bedürfnis. Psychologische Forschung, 7, 330–385.Google Scholar
  181. Liebert, R. M., & Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of text anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20, 975–978.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Lissner, K. (1933). Die Entspannung von Bedürfnissen durch Ersatzhandlungen. Psychologische Forschung, 18, 218–250.Google Scholar
  183. Litwin, G. H. (1966). Achievement motivation, expectancy of success, and risk-taking behavior. In J. W. Atkinson & N. T. Feather (Eds.), A theory of achievement behavior (pp. 103–115). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  184. Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157–189.Google Scholar
  185. Locke, E. A. (1975). Personnel attitudes and motivation. Annual Review of Psychology, 26, 457–480.Google Scholar
  186. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  187. Locke, E., & Latham, G. (Eds.). (2012). New developments in goal setting and task performance. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  188. Locke, E. A., & Shaw, K. N. (1984). Atkinson’s inverse-U curve and the missing cognitive variables. Psychological Reports, 55, 403–412.Google Scholar
  189. Lowell, E. L. (1950). A methodological study of projectively measured achievement motivation. Unveröffentlichte Magisterarbeit, Wesleyan University.Google Scholar
  190. Lowell, E. L. (1952). The effect of need for achievement on learning and speed of performance. Journal of Psychology, 33, 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Lund, B., Rheinberg, F., & Gladasch, U. (2001). Ein Elterntraining zum motivationsförderlichen Erziehungsverhalten in Leistungskontexten. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 15, 130–142.Google Scholar
  192. Lundy, A. (1985). The reliability of the thematic apperception test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 141–145.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Lundy, A. (1988). Instructional set and thematic apperception test validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Mahler, W. (1933). Ersatzhandlungen verschiedenen Realitätsgrades. Psychologische Forschung, 18, 27–89.Google Scholar
  195. Mandler, G., & Sarason, S. B. (1952). A study of anxiety and learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 166–173.Google Scholar
  196. Marsh, H. W., Byrne, B. M., & Shavelson, R. J. (1988). A multifaceted academic self-concept: Its hierarchical structure and its relation to academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 366–380.Google Scholar
  197. Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., & Debus, R. L. (2001). A quadripolar need achievement representation of self-handicapping and defensive pessimism. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 583–610.Google Scholar
  198. Martire, J. C. (1956). Relationship between the self-concept and differences in the strength and generality of achievement motivation. Journal of Personality, 24, 364–375.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. McClelland, D. C. (1958). Risk taking in children with high and low need for achievement. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, und society (pp. 306–321). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  200. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  201. McClelland, D. C. (1976). New introduction. In D. C. McClelland (Ed.), The achieving society. New York, NY: Irvington.Google Scholar
  202. McClelland, D. C. (1980). Motive dispositions: The merits of operant and respondent measures. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 10–41). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  203. McClelland, D. C. (1984a). Motives as sources of long-term trends in life and health. In D. C. McClelland (Ed.), Motives, personality, and society(pp. 343–364). New York, NY: Praeger.Google Scholar
  204. McClelland, D. C. (1984b). The empire-building motivational syndrome. In D. C. McClelland (Ed.), Motives, personality, und society: Selected papers (pp. 147–174). New York, NY: Praeger.Google Scholar
  205. McClelland, D. C. (1985a). How motives, skills, and values determine what people do. American Psychologist, 41, 812–825.Google Scholar
  206. McClelland, D. C. (1985b). Human motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  207. McClelland, D. C. (1995). Achievement motivation in relation to achievement–related recall, performance, and urine flow, a marker associated with release of vasopressin. Motivation and Emotion, 19, 59–76.Google Scholar
  208. McClelland, D. C., & Franz, C. E. (1992). Motivational and other sources of work accomplishment in mid-life: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality, 60, 680–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. McClelland, D. C., & Liberman, A. M. (1949). The effects of need for achievement on recognition of need related words. Journal of Personality, 18, 236–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. McClelland, D. C., & Winter, D. G. (1969). Motivating economic achievement. New York, NY: Free.Google Scholar
  211. McClelland, D. C., Clark, R. A., Roby, T. B., & Atkinson, J. W. (1949). The projective expression of need for achievement on thematic apperception. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39, 242–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., & Lowell, E. L. (1953). The achievement motive. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. McClelland, D. C., Koestner, R., & Weinberger, J. (1989). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Psychological Review, 96, 690–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. McKeachie, W. J. (1961). Motivation, teaching methods, and college learning. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 111–142). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  215. Mehrabian, A. (1969) Measures of achieving tendency. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 29, 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Meyer, W.-U. (1972). Überlegungen zur Konstruktion eines Fragebogens zur Erfassung von Selbstkonzepten der Begabung. Unveröffentlichtes Manuskript, RUB, Psychologisches Institut, Bochum, Germany.Google Scholar
  217. Meyer, W.-U. (1973). Anstrengungsintention in Abhängigkeit von Begabungseinschätzung und Aufgabenschwierigkeit. Archiv für Psychologie, 125, 245–262.Google Scholar
  218. Meyer, W.-U. (1984a). Das Konzept von der eigenen Begabung. Bern, Germany: Huber.Google Scholar
  219. Meyer, W.-U. (1984b). Das Konzept von der eigenen Begabung: Auswirkungen, Stabilität und vorauslaufende Bedingungen. Psychologische Rundschau, 35, 136–150.Google Scholar
  220. Meyer, W.-U. (1987). Perceived ability and achievement-related behavior. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Motivation, intention, and volition (pp. 73–86). Berlin, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  221. Meyer, W.-U., & Starke, E. (1982). Seeking information about one’s own ability in relation to self-concept of ability: A field study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 501–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Meyer, W.-U., Heckhausen, H., & Kemmler, L. (1965). Validierungskorrelate der inhaltsanalytisch erfaßten Leistungsmotivation guter und schwacher Schüler des dritten Schuljahres. Psychologische Forschung, 28, 301–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Meyer, W.-U., Niepel, M., & Engler, U. (1987). Erwartung, Affekt und Attribution: Untersuchungen zur Beziehung zwischen Erwartung und Anreiz und zur Attributionsabhängigkeit von Affekten. Psychologische Beiträge, 29, 227–258.Google Scholar
  224. Mierke, K. (1955). Wille und Leistung. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  225. Morgan, C. D., & Murray, H. A. (1935). A method for investigating fantasies: The thematic apperceptive test. Archives of Neurological Psychiatry, 34, 289–306.Google Scholar
  226. Moulton, R. W. (1958). Notes for a projective measure for fear of failure. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (pp. 563–571). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  227. Moulton, R. W. (1965). Effects of success and failure on level of aspiration as related to achievement motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 399–406.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. Mücher, H., & Heckhausen, H. (1962). Influence of mental activity and achievement motivation on skeletal muscle tonus. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 14, 217–218.Google Scholar
  229. Müller, E. F., & Beimann, M. (1969). Die Beziehung der Harnsäure zu Testwerten der nach Heckhausen gemessenen Leistungsmotivation. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 16, 295–316.Google Scholar
  230. Murray, H. A. (1933). The effect of fear upon estimates of the maliciousness of other personalities. Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 310–329.Google Scholar
  231. Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  232. Murray, H. A. (1943). Thematic apperceptive test manual. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  233. Murstein, B. I., & Pryer, R. S. (1959). The concept of projection: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 353–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Nicholls, J. G. (1984a). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Nicholls, J. G. (1984b). Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation. In R. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.), Student motivation (pp. 39–73). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  236. Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  237. Niitamo, P. (1999). “Surface” and “depth” in human personality: Relations between explicit and implicit motives. Helsinki, Finland: Finish Institute of Occupational Health.Google Scholar
  238. Nygard, R. (1975). A reconsideration of the achievement motivation theory. European Journal of Social Psychology, 5, 61–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Nygard, R. (1977). Personality, situation, and persistence. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  240. Nygard, R. (1982). Achievement motives and individual differences in situational specificity of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. O’Connor, P., Atkinson, J. W., & Horner, M. S. (1966). Motivational implications of ability grouping in schools. In J. W. Atkinson & N. T. Feather (Eds.), A theory of achievement motivation (pp. 231–248). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  242. Orpen, C. (1983). Risk-taking attitudes among Indian, United States, and Japanese managers. Journal of Social Psychology, 120, 283–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Pang, J. S. (2006). A revised content-coding measure for hope of success (HS) and fear of failure (FF). Unpublished dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  244. Pang, J. S. (2010). The achievement motive: A review of theory and assessment of n Achievement, hope of success, and fear of failure. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 30–70). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  245. Pang, J. S., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2005). Assessing implicit motives in U.S. College students: Effects of picture type and position, gender and ethnicity, and cross-cultural comparisons. Journal of Personal Assessment, 85, 280–294.Google Scholar
  246. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 583–597.Google Scholar
  247. Pennebaker, J. W., & Francis, M. E. (1999). Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  248. Pennebaker, J. W., & King, L. A. (1999). Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1296–1312.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. Peterson, B. E., & Stewart, A. J. (1993). Generativity and social motives in young adults. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 186–198.Google Scholar
  250. Plutchic, R. (1980). Emotion: A psychoevolutionary synthesis. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  251. Rasch, G. (1960). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Kopenhagen, Denmark: Nielson & Lydicke.Google Scholar
  252. Raynor, J. O. (1969). Future orientation and motivation of immediate activity: An elaboration of the theory of achievement motivation. Psychological Review, 76, 606–610.Google Scholar
  253. Raynor, J. O. (1974). Future orientation in the study of achievement motivation. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 121–154). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  254. Raynor, J. O., & Entin, E. E. (1982). Motivation, career striving and aging. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  255. Raynor, J. O., & Roeder, G. P. (1987). Motivation and future orientation: Task and time effects for achievement motivation. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Motivation, intention, and volition (pp. 61–71). Berlin, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  256. Reitman, W. R. (1960). Motivational induction and the behavioral correlates of the achievement and affiliation motives. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, 8–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. Reuman, D. A. (1982). Ipsative behavioral variability and the quality of thematic apperceptive measurement of the achievement motive. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 1098–1110.Google Scholar
  258. Revelle, W. (1986). Motivation and efficiency of cognitive performance. In D. R. Brown & J. Veroff (Eds.), Fronties of motivational psychology (pp. 107–127). Berlin, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  259. Revelle, W., & Michaels, E. J. (1976). The theory of achievement motivation revisited: The implications of inertial tendencies. Psychological Review, 83, 394–404.Google Scholar
  260. Rheinberg, F. (1980). Leistungsbewertung und Lernmotivation. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  261. Rheinberg, F. (2004). Motivational competence and flow-experience. Paper presented at the 2nd European conference of positive psychology, Verbania, Italy.Google Scholar
  262. Rheinberg, F., & Engeser, S. (2010). Motive training and motivational competence. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 510–548). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Rheinberg, F., & Krug, S. (2004). Motivationsförderung im Schulalltag: Psychologische Grundlagen und praktische Durchführung (3. Aufl. ed.). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  264. Rheinberg, F., Schmalt, H., & Wasser, I. (1978). Ein Lehrerunterschied, der etwas ausmacht. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 10, 3–7.Google Scholar
  265. Rheinberg, F., Duscha, R., & Michels, U. (1980). Zielsetzung und Kausalattribution in Abhängigkeit vom Leistungsvergleich. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 12, 177–189.Google Scholar
  266. Rheinberg, F., Vollmeyer, R., & Burns, B. D. (2000). Motivation and self-regulated learning. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational psychology of human development: Developing motivation and motivating development (pp. 81–108). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  267. Riskind, J. H. (1984). They stoop to conquer: Guiding and self-regulatory functions of physical posture after success and failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 479–493.Google Scholar
  268. Rogers, E. M., & Svenning, L. (1969). Modernization among peasants: The impact of communication. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  269. Sader, M., & Keil, W. (1968). Faktorenanalytische Untersuchungen zur Projektion der Leistungsmotivation. Archiv für die gesamte Psychologie, 120, 25–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  270. Sader, M., & Specht, H. (1967). Leistung, Motivation und Leistungsmotivation: Korrelationsstatistische Untersuchungen zur Leistungsmotivmessung nach Heckhausen. Archiv für die gesamte Psychologie, 119, 90–130.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  271. Sanford, R. N. (1937). The effects of abstinence from food upon imaginal processes: A preliminary experiment. Journal of Psychology, 3, 145–159.Google Scholar
  272. Sawusch, J. R. (1974). Computer simulation of the influence of ability and motivation on test performance and cumulative achievement and the relation between them. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 425–438). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  273. Scheffer, D. (2003). Die Messung impliziter Motive. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  274. Schiefele, U., & Rheinberg, F. (1997). Motivation and knowledge acquisition: Searching for mediating processes. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 251–301). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  275. Schiefele, U., & Urhahne, D. (2000). Motivationale und volitionale Bedingungen der Studienleistung. In U. Schiefele & K.-P. Wild (Eds.), Interesse und Lernmotivation: Untersuchungen zu Entwicklung, Förderung und Wirkung (pp. 183–205). Münster, Germany: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  276. Schmalt, H.-D. (1973). Die GITTER-Technik – ein objektives Verfahren zur Messung des Leistungsmotivs bei Kindern. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 5, 231–252.Google Scholar
  277. Schmalt, H.-D. (1976a). Das LM-GITTER. Handanweisung. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  278. Schmalt, H.-D. (1976b). Die Messung des Leistungsmotivs. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  279. Schmalt, H.-D. (1999). Assessing the achievement motive using the Grid technique. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 109–130.Google Scholar
  280. Schmalt, H.-D. (2003). Leistungsmotivation im Unterricht: Über den Einsatz des LM-Gitters in der Schule. In J. Stiensmeier-Pelster & F. Rheinberg (Eds.), Diagnostik von Motivation und Selbstkonzept (pp. 105–127). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  281. Schmalt, H.-D., & Sokolowski, K. (2000). Zum gegenwärtigen Stand der Motivdiagnostik. Diagnostica, 46, 115–123.Google Scholar
  282. Schmalt, H.-D., Sokolowski, K., & Langens, T. (2000). Das Multi-Motiv-Gitter (MMG). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets.Google Scholar
  283. Schneider, K. (1971). Leistungs- und Risikoverhalten in Abhängigkeit von situativen und überdauernden Komponenten der Leistungsmotivation: Kritische Untersuchungen zu einem Verhaltensmodell. Unveröffentlichte Dissertation, RUB, Abt. für Philosophie, Pädagogik, Psychologie, Bochum, Germany.Google Scholar
  284. Schneider, K. (1973). Motivation unter Erfolgsrisiko. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  285. Schneider, K. (1974). Subjektive Unsicherheit und Aufgabenwahl. Archiv für Psychologie, 126, 147–169.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  286. Schneider, K., & Heckhausen, H. (1981). Subjective uncertainty and task preference. In H. I. Day (Ed.), Advances in intrinsic motivation und aesthetics (pp. 149–167). New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  287. Schneider, K., & Kreuz, A. (1979). Die Effekte unterschiedlicher Anstrengung auf die Mengen- und Güteleistung bei einer einfachen und schweren Zahlensymbolaufgabe. Psychologie und Praxis, 23, 34–42.Google Scholar
  288. Schneider, K., Wegge, J., & Konradt, U. (1993). Motivation und Leistung. In J. Beckmann, H. Strang, & E. Hahn (Eds.), Aufmerksamkeit und Energetisierung: Facetten von Konzentration und Leistung (pp. 101–131). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  289. Schroth, M. L. (1988). Relationships between achievement-related motives, extrinsic conditions, and task performance. Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 39–48.Google Scholar
  290. Schuler, H., & Prochaska, M. (2000). Entwicklung und Konstruktvalidierung eines berufsbezogenen Leistungsmotivationstests. Diagnostica, 46, 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Schüler, J., Brandstätter, V., Wegner, M., & Baumann, N. (2015). Testing the convergent and discriminant validity of three implicit motive measures: PSE, OMT, MMG. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 839–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Schultheiss, O. C. (2001b). Manual for the assessment of hope of success and fear of failure: English translation of Heckhausens need achievement measure. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  293. Schultheiss, O. C. (2001a). An information processing account of implicit motive arousal. In M. L. Maehr & P. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement, Vol. 12: New directions in measures and methods (pp. 1–41). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  294. Schultheiss, O. C. (2013). Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 748.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  295. Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2001). Assessing implicit motives with a research version of the tat: Picture profiles, gender differences, and relations to other personality measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77, 71–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2005). An implicit motive perspective on competence motivation. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 31–51). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  297. Schultheiss, O. C., Liening, S., & Schad, D. (2008). The reliability of a Picture Story Exercise measure of implicit motives: Estimates of internal consistency, retest stability, and ipsative stability. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1560–1571.Google Scholar
  298. Schultheiss, O. C., Wiemers, U. S., & Wolf, O. T. (2014). Implicit need for achievement predicts attenuated cortisol responses to difficult tasks. Journal of Research in Personality, 48, 84–92.Google Scholar
  299. Schwarz, N. (1990). Feeling as information: Informational and motivational functions of affective states. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 527–561). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  300. Schwinger, M., Wirthwein, L., Lemmer, G., & Steinmayr, R. (2014). Academic self-handicapping and achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 744–761.Google Scholar
  301. Scott, W. A. (1956). The avoidance of threatening material in imaginative behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 52, 338–346.Google Scholar
  302. Sedikides, C., & Strube, M. J. (1997). Self-evaluation: To thine own self be good, to thine own self be sure, to thine own self be true, and to thine own self be better. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 209–269.Google Scholar
  303. Seidenstücker, G., & Seidenstücker, E. (1974). Contribution to a computer evaluation of the thematic achievement motivation test by Heckhausen. Psychologische Beiträge, 16, 68–92.Google Scholar
  304. Shantz, A., & Latham, G. P. (2009). An exploratory field experiment of the effect of subconscious and conscious goals on employee performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109, 9–17.Google Scholar
  305. Shoda, & Mischel, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102, 246–268.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  306. Short, J.-A. C., & Sorrentino, R. M. (1986). Achievement, affiliation, and group incentives: A test of the overmotivation hypothesis. Motivation and Emotion, 10, 115–131.Google Scholar
  307. Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74, 107–120.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  308. Singh, S. (1979). Relationships among projective and direct verbal measures of achievement motivation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 43, 45–49.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  309. Slabbinck, H., De Houwer, J., & Van Kenhove, P. (2012). The pictorial attitude implicit association test for need for affiliation. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 838–842.Google Scholar
  310. Slabbinck, H., De Houwer, J., & Van Kenhove, P. (2013). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the pictorial attitude Implicit Association Test and the Picture Story Exercise as measures of the implicit power motive. European Journal of Personality, 27, 30–38.Google Scholar
  311. Slavin, R. E. (1995). Cooperative learning (2. Aufl. ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  312. Smith, C. P. (Ed.). (1992). Motivation and personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  313. Smith, C. P., & Feld, S. C. (1958). How to learn the method of content analysis for n achievement, n affiliation, and n power. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, und society (pp. 685–818). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  314. Sokolowski, K., Schmalt, H.-D., Langens, T., & Puca, R. M. (2000). Assessing achievement, affiliation, and power motives all at once: The Multi-Motive-Grid (MMG). Journal of Personality Assessment, 74, 126–145.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  315. Sorrentino, R. M., & Hewitt, E. C. (1984). The uncertainty-reducing properties of achievement tasks revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 884–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Sorrentino, R. M., & Short, J. (1977). The case of the mysterious moderates: Why motives sometimes fail to predict behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 478–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Sorrentino, R. M., Roney, C. J. E., & Hewitt, E. C. (1988). Information value versus affective value and achievement behavior. In F. Halisch & J. H. L. van den Bercken (Eds.), International perspectives on achievement and task motivation. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  318. Sorrentino, R. M., Hanna, S. E., & Roney, C. J. R. (1992). Uncertainty orientation. In C. P. Smith (Ed.), Motivation and personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis (pp. 428–439). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Sorrentino, R. M., Smithson, M., Hodson, G., Roney, C. J. R., & Walker, A. M. (2003). The theory of uncertainty orientation: A mathematical reformulation. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 47, 132–149.Google Scholar
  320. Spangler, W. D. (1992). Validity of questionnaire and TAT measures of need for achievement: Two meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 140–154.Google Scholar
  321. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  322. Stewart, A. J., & Chester, N. L. (1982). Sex differences in human social motives: Achievement, affiliation, and power. In A. J. Stewart (Ed.), Motivation and society (pp. 172–218). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  323. Stiensmeier-Pelster, J., & Rheinberg, F. (Eds.). (2003). Diagnostik von Motivation und Selbstkonzept. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  324. Stone, P. J., Dumphy, D. C., Smith, M. S., & Ogilvie, D. M. (1966). The general inquirer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  325. Szeto, A. C. H., Sorrentino, R. M., Yasunaga, S., Kouhara, S., & Lin, L. (2011). Motivation and performance: Uncertainty regulation in Canada and Japan. Motivation and Emotion, 35, 338–350.Google Scholar
  326. Taylor, S. E., Neter, E., & Wayment, H. A. (1995). Self-evaluation processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1278–1287.Google Scholar
  327. Thomas, E. A. C. (1983). Notes on effort and achievement oriented behavior. Psychological Review, 90, 1–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  328. Thrash, T. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Implicit and self-attributed achievement motives: Concordance and predictive validity. Journal of Personality, 70, 729–755.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  329. Thurstone, L. L. (1937). Ability, motivation, and speed. Psychometrika, 2, 249–254.Google Scholar
  330. Trope, Y. (1975). Seeking information about one’s own ability as a determinant of choice among tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 1004–1013.Google Scholar
  331. Trope, Y. (1980). Self-assessment, self-enhancement, and task preference. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 116–129.Google Scholar
  332. Trope, Y. (1983). Self-assessment in achievement behavior. In J. M. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 2, pp. 93–121). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  333. Trope, Y. (1986a). Testing self-enhancement and self-assessment theories of achievement motivation: A reply to Sohn’s critique. Motivation and Emotion, 10, 247–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Trope, Y. (1986b). Self-enhancement and self-assessment in achievement behavior. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (pp. 350–378). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  335. Trope, Y., & Brickman, P. (1975). Difficulty and diagnosticity as determinants of choice among tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 918–926.Google Scholar
  336. Trudewind, C., & Husarek, B. (1979). Mutter-Kind-Interaktion bei der Hausaufgabenbetreuung und die Leistungsmotiventwicklung im Grundschulalter: Analyse einer ökologischen Schlüsselsituation. In H. Walter & R. Oerter (Eds.), Ökologie und Entwicklung (pp. 229–246). Stuttgart, Germany: Klett.Google Scholar
  337. Tuerlinckx, F., De Boeck, P., & Lens, W. (2002). Measuring needs with the thematic apperception test: A psychometric study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 448–461.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  338. Veroff, J. (1969). Social comparison and the development of achievement motivation. In C. P. Smith (Ed.), Achievement-related motives in children (pp. 46–101). New York, NY: Sage.Google Scholar
  339. Weber, M. (1904). Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus. Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, 20, 1–54.Google Scholar
  340. Weinberger, J., & McClelland, D. C. (1990). Cognitive versus traditional motivational models: Irreconcilable or complementary? In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 562–597). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  341. Weiner, B. (1965a). Need achievement and the resumption of incompleted tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 165–168.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  342. Weiner, B. (1965b). The effects of unsatisfied achievement motivation on persistence and subsequent performance. Journal of Personality, 33, 428–442.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  343. Weiner, B. (1967). Implications of the current theory of achievement motivation for research and performance in the classroom. Psychology in the School, 4, 164–171.Google Scholar
  344. Weiner, B. (1970). New conceptions in the study of achievement motivation. In B. Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 5, pp. 67–109). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  345. Weiner, B. (1974). Achievement motivation and attribution theory. Morristown, NJ: General Learning.Google Scholar
  346. Weiner, B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 3–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  347. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548–573.Google Scholar
  348. Weiner, B., Frieze, I. H., Kukla, A., Reed, L., Rest, S., & Rosenbaum, R. M. (1971). Perceiving the causes of success and failure. New York, NY: General Learning.Google Scholar
  349. Weisfeld, G. E., & Beresford, J. M. (1982). Erectness of posture as an indicator of dominance or success in humans. Motivation and Emotion, 6, 113–131.Google Scholar
  350. Wendt, H. W. (1955). Motivation, effort, and performance. In D. C. McClelland (Ed.), Studies in motivation (pp. 448–459). New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  351. Wendt, H. W. (1967). Verhaltensmodelle des Nichtwissenschaftlers: Einige biographische und Antriebskorrelate der wahrgenommenen Beziehung zwischen Erfolgswahrscheinlichkeit und Zielanreiz. Psychologische Forschung, 30, 226–249.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  352. Wicklund, R. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1982). Symbolic self-completion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  353. Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 68–81.Google Scholar
  354. Wilson, T. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive unconscious. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  355. Wilson, T., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. Y. (2000). A model of dual attitudes. Psychological Review, 107, 101–126.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  356. Wine, J. (1971). Test anxiety and direction of attention. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 92–104.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  357. Winter, D. G. (1991a). Manual for scoring motive imagery in running text (3. Aufl.). Unpublished scoring manual, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  358. Winter, D. G. (1991b). Measuring personality at a distance: Development of an integrated system for scoring motives in running text. In R. Hogan, D. Ozer, J. M. Healy, & A. J. Stewart (Eds.), Perspectives in personality. Vol. 3B: Approaches to understanding lives (pp. 59–89). London, UK: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  359. Winter, D. G., & Stewart, A. J. (1977). Power motive reliability as a function of retest instructions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 436–440.Google Scholar
  360. Wolters, C. A. (2003). Regulation of motivation: Evaluating an underemphasized aspect of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 38, 189–205.Google Scholar
  361. Wood, R. E. (1986). Task complexity: Definition of the construct. Organizational Behavior and Decision Processes, 37, 60–82.Google Scholar
  362. Wood, R. E., Mento, A. J., & Locke, E. A. (1987). Task complexity as a moderator of goal effects: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 416–425.Google Scholar
  363. Wright, R. A. (1996). Brehm’s theory of motivation as a model of effort and cardiovascular response. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 424–453). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  364. Yang, F., Ramsay, R. E., Schultheiss, O. C., & Pang, J. S. (2015). Need for achievement moderates the effect of motive-relevant challenge on salivary cortisol changes. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 321–334.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  365. Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative and Neurological Psychology, 18, 459–482.Google Scholar
  366. Zeigarnik, B. (1927). Über das Behalten von erledigten und unerledigten Handlungen. Psychologische Forschung, 9, 1–85.Google Scholar
  367. Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (1997). Developmental phases in self-regulation: Shifting from process goals to outcome goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 29–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Psychology and Sports ScienceJustus-Liebig-UniversityGiessenGermany
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for Psychological ResearchMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations