Motivation and Volition in the Workplace

  • Hugo M. Kehr
  • Matthias Strasser
  • Andrea Paulus


Work motivation is an important determinant of the success of individuals, teams, and organizations. Researchers and professionals are therefore interested in motivation as a key variable that can explain performance, commitment, and work satisfaction. This chapter provides an introduction to classic theories of employee motivation and current applied research. Finally, the chapter will introduce the 3C-model of motivation as a framework for the comprehensive classification of the determinants of employee motivation.


  1. Ach, N. K. (1935). Analyse des Willens. In E. Abderhalden (Ed.), Handbuch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden. Wien, Austria: Urban & Schwarzenberg.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 267–299. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amann, D. G. (2014). Transformational leadership meets follower motives: Compatibility of dimensions of transformational leadership and follower motives determines work-related outcomes. (Dissertation Technische Universität München). Zugriff unter
  4. Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6, 355–385. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Euwema, M. C. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 170–180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Li, N. (2013). The theory of purposeful work behavior: The role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of Management Review, 38, 132–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (2000). Ego depletion: A resource model of volition, self-regulation, and controlled processing. Social Cognition, 18, 130–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bimber, O., & Raskar, R. (2005). Spatial augmented reality: Merging real and virtual worlds. Norwood, MA: CRC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blessin, B., & Wick, A. (2013). Führen und führen lassen (7th ed.). Konstanz, Germany: UTB.Google Scholar
  10. Bockman, V. M. (1971). The Herzberg controversy. Personnel Psychology, 24, 155–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brunstein, J. C., Schultheiss, O. C., & Grässman, R. (1998). Personal goals and emotional well-being: The moderating role of motive dispositions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 494–508. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Burton, K. D., Lydon, J. E., D’Alessandro, D. U., & Koestner, R. (2006). The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on well-being and performance: Prospective, experimental, and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 750–762. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cardador, M. T., Northcraft, G. B., & Whicker, J. (2016). A theory of work gamification: Something old, something new, something borrowed, something cool? Human Resource Management Review.
  14. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1982). Control theory: A useful conceptual framework for personality-social, clinical, and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 111–135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2012). Attention and self-regulation: A control-theory approach to human behavior, SSSP Springer Series in Social Psychology. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 980–1008. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, H. (2006). Flow on the net–detecting Web users’ positive affects and their flow states. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 221–233. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991). Das Flow-Erlebnis und seine Bedeutung für die Psychologie des Menschen. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Die außergewöhnliche Erfahrung im Alltag. Die Psychologie des Flow-Erlebens (pp. 29–49). Stuttgart, Germany: Klett-Cotta.Google Scholar
  19. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety: The experience of play in work and games. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  20. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109–134. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49, 14–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining gamification. In Proceedings of the 15th international academic MindTrek conference: Envisioning future media environments (pp. 9–15). ACM. doi:
  24. Dijksterhuis, A. (2004). Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 586–598. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Dörner, D., & Schaub, H. (1994). Errors in planning and decision-making and the nature of human information processing. Applied Psychology, 43, 433–453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Earley, P. C., Connolly, T., & Ekegren, G. (1989). Goals, strategy development, and task performance: Some limits on the efficacy of goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 24–33. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. EY. (2015). EY Jobstudie 2015 – Motivation, Gehalt und Arbeitszufriedenheit. Zugriff unter
  28. Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 327–358. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Frese, M., & Zapf, D. (1990). Action as the core of work psychology: A German approach. In H. C. Triandis, M. D. Dunnette, & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 271–340). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists.Google Scholar
  30. Gagné, M. (2003). The role of autonomy support and autonomy orientation in prosocial behavior engagement. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 199–223. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331–362. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gagné, M., Forest, J., Gilbert, M.-H., Aubé, C., Morin, E., & Malorni, A. (2010). The motivation at work scale: Validation evidence in two languages. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70, 628–646. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gagné, M., Forest, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Crevier-Braud, L., van den Broeck, A., Aspeli, A. K., … Westbye, C. (2015). The multidimensional work motivation scale: Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24, 178–196. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Georgopoulos, B. S., Mahoney, G. M., & Jones, N. W., Jr. (1957). A path-goal approach to productivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 41, 345–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gollwitzer, P. M. (1990). Action phases and mind-sets. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition. Foundations of social behavior (2nd ed., pp. 53–92). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  36. Gollwitzer, P. M., & Moskowitz, G. B. (1996). Goal effects on action and cognition. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology. Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 361–399). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  37. Gröpel, P., & Kehr, H. M. (2014). Motivation and self-control: Implicit motives moderate the exertion of self-control in motive-related tasks. Journal of Personality, 82, 317–328. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Güntert, S. T. (2015). The impact of work design, autonomy support, and strategy on employee outcomes: A differentiated perspective on self-determination at work. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 74–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  40. Haggard, P. (2008). Human volition: Towards a neuroscience of will. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(12), 934–946. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hagger, M. S., Wood, C., Stiff, C., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2010). Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 495–525. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Hajas, V. (2013). Motivationale Effekte von Unternehmensvisionen. (Dissertation Technische Universität München). Zugriff unter
  43. Hamari, J. (2015). Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on the effects of gamification. Computers in Human Behavior.
  44. Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does gamification work? A literature review of empirical studies on gamification. In IEEE 8th international symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE) (pp. 3025–3034). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. doi:
  45. Hamari, J., Shernoff, D. J., Rowe, E., Coller, B., Asbell-Clarke, J., & Edwards, T. (2016). Challenging games help students learn: An empirical study on engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 170–179. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heckhausen, H., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1987). Thought contents and cognitive functioning in motivational versus volitional states of mind. Motivation and Emotion, 11, 101–120. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1969). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  48. Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. Oxford, UK: World.Google Scholar
  49. Herzberg, F. (1976). The managerial choice: To be efficient and to be human. Homewood, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
  50. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Hillgruber, A. (1912). Fortlaufende Arbeit und Willensbetätigung. Leipzig, Germany: Quelle & Meyer.Google Scholar
  52. House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 7, 323–352. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. House, R. J., & Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Path-goal theory of leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3, 81–97. Zugriff unter Google Scholar
  54. House, R. J., & Shamir, B. (1993). Toward the integration of transformational, charismatic, and visionary theories. In M. M. Chemers & R. Ayman Roya (Eds.), Leadership theory and research. Perspectives and directions (pp. 81–107). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  55. Hsu, C.-L., & Lu, H.-P. (2004). Why do people play on-line games? An extended TAM with social influences and flow experience. Information Management, 41, 853–868. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Humphrey, S. E., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1332–1356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Isaac, R. G., Zerbe, W. J., & Pitt, D. C. (2001). Leadership and motivation: The effective application of expectancy theory. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13, 212–226. Zugriff unter Google Scholar
  58. Jenkins, G. D., Mitra, A., Gupta, N., Shaw, J. D., Jenkins, G. D., & JR. (1998). Are financial incentives related to performance? A meta-analytic review of empirical research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 777–787. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Judge, T. A., & Church, A. H. (2000). Job satisfaction: Research and practice. In C. L. Cooper & E. A. Locke (Eds.), Industrial and organizational psychology. Linking theory with practice (pp. 166–198). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  60. Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation theory and industrial and organizational psychology. In H. C. Triandis, M. D. Dunnette, & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 75–170). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists.Google Scholar
  61. Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2004). Aging, adult development, and work motivation. Academy of Management Review, 29, 440–458. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kanfer, R., Chen, G., & Pritchard, R. D. (2012). Work motivation: Past, present and future. The organizational frontiers series. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Kanfer, R., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Motivational traits and skills: A person-centered approach to work motivation. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 1–56.Google Scholar
  64. Kapp, K. M. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction: Game-based methods and strategies for training and education. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Kashdan, T. B., Julian, T., Merritt, K., & Uswatte, G. (2006). Social anxiety and posttraumatic stress in combat veterans: Relations to well-being and character strengths. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 561–583. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Kehr, H. M. (1999). Entwurf eines konfliktorientierten Prozessmodells von Motivation und Volition. Psychologische Beiträge, 41, 20–43.Google Scholar
  67. Kehr, H. M. (2004a). Implicit/explicit motive discrepancies and volitional depletion among managers. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 315–327. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Kehr, H. M. (2004b). Integrating implicit motives, explicit motives, and perceived abilities: The compensatory model of work motivation and volition. Academy of Management Review, 29, 479–499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kehr, H. M. (2004c). Motivation und Volition: Funktionsanalysen, Feldstudien mit Führungskräften und Entwicklung eines Selbstmanagement-Trainings (SMT). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  70. Kehr, H. M. (2005). Implicit fear motives and volitional depletion among managers. 9. European Congress of Psychology, Granada, Spain.Google Scholar
  71. Kehr, H. M. (2008). Authentisches Selbstmanagement: Übungen zur Steigerung von Motivation und Willensstärke. Weinheim, Germany: Beltz.Google Scholar
  72. Kehr, H. M. (2011). Führung durch Motivation: Implizite Motive, explizite Ziele und die Steigerung der Willenskraft. Personalführung, 4, 66–71. Zugriff unter Google Scholar
  73. Kehr, H. M. (2014). Das 3K-Modell der motivation. In J. Felfe (Ed.), Psychologie für das Personalmanagement: Bd. 27. Trends der psychologischen Führungsforschung. Neue Konzepte, Methoden und Erkenntnisse (pp. 103–116). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  74. Kehr, H. M., Amann, D. G., & Giessner, S. (2016). Transformational leadership meets follower motives: Compatibility of dimensions of transformational leadership and follower motives determines work-related outcomes. Potsdam Leadership Symposium, Potsdam, Germany.Google Scholar
  75. Kehr, H. M., & Rawolle, M. (2009). Kopf, Bauch und Hand – wie Motivation Veränderungsprozesse unterstützt. Wirtschaftspsychologie Aktuell, 2, 23–26. Zugriff unter Google Scholar
  76. Kehr, H. M., & von Rosenstiel, L. (2006). Self-Management Training (SMT): Theoretical and empirical foundations for the development of a metamotivational and metavolitional intervention program. In D. H. Frey, H. Mandl, & L. von Rosenstiel (Eds.), Knowledge and action (pp. 103–141). Cambridge, MA: Huber & Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  77. Kelley, H. H., & Michela, J. L. (1980). Attribution theory and research. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 457–501. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Kleinbeck, U., & Schmidt, K.-H. (1996). Die Wirkung von Zielsetzungen auf das Handeln. In H. Heckhausen & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Bd. 4. Motivation, Volition und Handlung (pp. 875–907). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  79. Kooij, D. T., de Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., Kanfer, R., & Dikkers, J. S. E. (2011). Age and work-related motives: Results of a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 197–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kuhl, J. (1996). Wille und Freiheitserleben: Formen der Selbststeuerung. In H. Heckhausen & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Bd. 4. Motivation, Volition und Handlung (pp. 665–765). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  81. Kuhl, J. (2000). The volitional basis of personality systems interaction theory: Applications in learning and treatment contexts. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 665–703. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kuhl, J., & Fuhrmann, A. (1998). Decomposing self-regulation and self-control: The volitional components inventory. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across the life span (pp. 15–49). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Labouvie-Vief, G. (2003). Dynamic integration: Affect, cognition, and the self in adulthood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 201–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lang, J. W. B., Zettler, I., Ewen, C., & Hülsheger, U. R. (2012). Implicit motives, explicit traits, and task and contextual performance at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 1201–1217. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Latham, G. P. (2012). Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Self-regulation through goal setting. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 212–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2007). New developments in and directions for goal-setting research. European Psychologist, 12, 290–300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Latham, G. P., Stajkovic, A. D., & Locke, E. A. (2010). The relevance and viability of subconscious goals in the workplace. Journal of Management, 36, 234–255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Locke, E. A., & Kristof, A. L. (1996). Volitional choices in the goal achievement process. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action. Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 365–384). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  91. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1979). Goal setting – a motivational technique that works. Organizational Dynamics, 8, 68–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting & task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  93. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705–717. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2004). What should we do about motivation theory? Six recommendations for the twenty-first century. Academy of Management Review, 29, 388–403. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2013). New developments in goal setting and task performance. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  96. Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M., & Latham, G. P. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1969–1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125–152. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lu, Y., Zhou, T., & Wang, B. (2009). Exploring Chinese users’ acceptance of instant messaging using the theory of planned behavior, the technology acceptance model, and the flow theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 29–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. McClelland, D. C. (1985). How motives, skills, and values determine what people do. American Psychologist, 40, 812–825. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McClelland, D. C. (1995). Scientific psychology as a social enterprise. (unpubliziertes Manuskript).Google Scholar
  102. McClelland, D. C., Koestner, R., & Weinberger, J. (1989). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Psychological Review, 96, 690–702. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Miner, J. B. (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  104. Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 247–259. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in personality. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Nanus, B. (1992). Visionary leadership: Creating a compelling sense of direction for your organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  107. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2010). The relationships of age with job attitudes: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 63, 677–718. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nink, M. (2014). Engagement-Index: Die neuesten Daten und Erkenntnisse aus 13 Jahren Gallup-Studie. München, Germany: Redline.Google Scholar
  109. Northouse, P. G. (2015). Leadership: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  110. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (2015). Ageing and employment policies. Zugriff unter:
  111. Pinder, C. C. (2008). Work motivation in organizational behavior (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Psychology.Google Scholar
  112. Posthuma, R. A., & Campion, M. A. (2009). Age stereotypes in the workplace: Common stereotypes, moderators, and future research directions. Journal of Management, 35, 158–188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rand, A., & Branden, N. (1964). The virtue of selfishness: A new concept of egoism. New York: Signet.Google Scholar
  114. Rawolle, M., Kehr, H. M., & Glaser, J. (2007). Why self-set goals may sometimes be nonmotivating. In C. Wankel (Ed.), 21. Century management. A reference handbook (pp. 203–210). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  115. Rawolle, M., Schultheiss, O. C., Strasser, A., & Kehr, H. M. (2016). The motivating power of visionary images: Effects on motivation, affect, and behavior. Journal of Personality. Advance Online Publication.
  116. Rhodes, S. R. (1983). Age-related differences in work attitudes and behavior: A review and conceptual analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 328–367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sachau, D. A. (2007). Resurrecting the motivation-hygiene theory: Herzberg and the positive psychology movement. Human Resource Development Review, 6, 377–393. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sailer, M., Hense, J., Mandl, H., & Klevers, M. (2013). Psychological perspectives on motivation through gamification. Interaction Design & Architecture(s), 19, 28–37. Zugriff unter Google Scholar
  120. Schattke, K., Brandstätter, V., Taylor, G., & Kehr, H. M. (2014). Flow on the rocks: Motive-incentive congruence enhances flow in rock climbing. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 45, 603–620. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schattke, K., Seeliger, J., Schiepe-Tiska, A., & Kehr, H. M. (2012). Activity-related incentives as motivators in open innovation communities. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Organizations (IJKBO), 2, 21–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Schiepe-Tiska, A., Schattke, K., & Kehr, H. M. (2016). Flow in open innovation: A test of the predictive power of the compensatory model of motivation. Manuskript eingereicht zur Publikation.Google Scholar
  123. Schmalstieg, D., & Hollerer, T. (2016). Augmented reality: Principles and practice. Boston: Addison-Wesley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Schmidt, K. H., & Kleinbeck, U. (2006). Führen mit Zielvereinbarung. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  125. Schmidt, K.-H., & Kleinbeck, U. (1999). Funktionsgrundlagen der Leistungswirkungen von Zielen bei der Arbeit. In M. Jerusalem & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion, Motivation und Leistung (pp. 291–304). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  126. Schüler, J., Brandstätter, V., & Sheldon, K. M. (2013). Do implicit motives and basic psychological needs interact to predict well-being and flow? Testing a universal hypothesis and a matching hypothesis. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 480–495. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schweitzer, M. E., Ordóñez, L., & Douma, B. (2004). Goal setting as a motivator of unethical behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 422–432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2007). The affect heuristic. European Journal of Operational Research, 177, 1333–1352. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sokolowski, K. (1997). Sequentielle und imperative Konzepte des Willens. Psychologische Beiträge, 39, 346–369. Zugriff unter Google Scholar
  130. Srivastava, A., Locke, E. A., & Bartol, K. M. (2001). Money and subjective well-being: It’s not the money, it’s the motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 959–971. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Shapiro, D. L. (2004). Introduction to special topic forum: The future of work motivation theory. The Academy of Management Review, 29, 379–387. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Strasser, A., Rawolle, M., & Kehr, H. M. (2011). Wie Visionen wirken – Wissenschaftler untersuchen Motivation durch mentale Bilder. Wirtschaftspsychologie Aktuell, 2, 9–13.Google Scholar
  133. Strasser, M., & Kehr, H. M. (2012). Motivation gezielt fördern. Coaching-Magazin, 13, 38–41. Zugriff unter Google Scholar
  134. Thrash, T. M., Elliot, A. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). Methodological and dispositional predictors of congruence between implicit and explicit need for achievement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 961–974. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Trapp, J. K., & Kehr, H. M. (2016). How the influence of the implicit power motive on negotiation performance can be neutralized by a conflicting explicit affiliation motive. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 159–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tyler, T. R., & Lind, E. A. (2002). Procedural justice. In J. Sanders & V. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Handbook of justice research in law (pp. 65–92). New York: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 271–360. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. van Eerde, W., & Thierry, H. (1996). Vroom’s expectancy models and work-related criteria: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 575–586. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. van Krevelen, D. W., & Poelman, R. (2010). A survey of augmented reality technologies, applications and limitations. The International Journal of Virtual Reality, 9, 1–20. Zugriff unter Google Scholar
  140. von Rosenstiel, L., Kehr, H. M., & Maier, G. W. (2000). Motivation and volition in pursuing personal work goals. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational psychology of human development: Developing motivation and motivating development (pp. 287–305). Amsterdam: Elsevier. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. Oxford, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  142. Webster, J., Trevino, L. K., & Ryan, L. (1993). The dimensionality and correlates of flow in human-computer interactions. Computers in Human Behavior, 9, 411–426. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Weibler, J. (2016). Personalführung (2nd ed.). München, Germany: Vahlen.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548–573. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Werbach, K., & Hunter, D. (2012). For the win: How game thinking can revolutionize your business. Philadelphia: Wharton.Google Scholar
  146. Winter, D. G., John, O. P., Stewart, A. J., Klohnen, E. C., & Duncan, L. E. (1998). Traits and motives: Toward an integration of two traditions in personality research. Psychological Review, 105, 230–250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wood, R. E., & Locke, E. A. (1990). Goal-setting and strategy effects on complex tasks. Research in Organizational Behavior, 12, 73–109.Google Scholar
  148. Wundt, W. M. (1896). Grundriß der Psychologie. Leipzig, Germany: Engelmann.Google Scholar
  149. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (2006). OECD Factbook 2006. OECD database.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugo M. Kehr
    • 1
  • Matthias Strasser
    • 1
  • Andrea Paulus
    • 1
  1. 1.TUM School of ManagementTechnical University of MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations