Multi-level Governance, Civic Capacity, and Overcoming the Climate Change “Adaptation Deficit” in Baltimore, Maryland

Chapter
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)

Abstract

This chapter explores the policy and planning efforts of the city of Baltimore, Maryland, with respect to climate change adaptation using the institutional analysis and development framework. The city’s innovative combined disaster preparedness and climate change adaptation plan was adopted in 2013 and situated within a complex, multi-level climate governance regime established in 2007. It’s planning efforts have been recognized for their high quality from the federal government and nonprofit organizations. Additionally, city staff chose to build civic capacity on climate change resilience early in its implementation efforts, reaching more than one thousand residents to date. Yet civic dialogue around climate adaptation or private adaptive action has not emerged. Instead, adaptation efforts appear squarely rooted within the governmental realm and subject to resource constraints of its primary institutions, leaders, and staff. Thus, the Baltimore case reveals both the resilience of staff when conducting climate adaptation planning in an atmosphere of fiscal constraint, and the difficulties in fostering a community-wide sense of responsibility for climate adaptation action.

Keywords

Climate change Adaptation Civic capacity Baltimore Governance 

References

  1. Adger, W. N., Dessai, S., Goulden, M., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I., Nelson, D. R., et al. (2009). Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? Climatic Change, 93(3–4), 335–354. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9520-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, I., Peterson, A., Brown, G., & McAlpine, C. (2012). Local government response to the impacts of climate change: An evaluation of local climate adaptation plans. Landscape and Urban Planning, 107, 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baltimore Metropolitan Council. (2015a). Baltimore regional plan for sustainable development. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Metropolitan Council. http://www.opportunitycollaborative.org/assets/RPSD_Final_June_2015.pdf. Accessed 1 April 2016.
  4. Baltimore Metropolitan Council. (2015b, January 22). Environmental Coordination Mapping. http://baltometro.org/our-work/environmental-planning/environmental-coordination-mapping. Accessed 1 April 2016.
  5. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (2009). The Baltimore Sustainability Plan. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Office of Sustainability. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Baltimore-Sustainability-Plan.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  6. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (2013a). Baltimore Climate Action Plan. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Office of Sustainability. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/BaltimoreClimateActionPlan.pdf. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  7. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (2013b). Disaster preparedness and planning project: A combined all hazards mitigation and climate adaptation plan. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Office of Sustainability. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Executivesummary.pdf. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  8. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (2014). 2014 Annual Sustainability Report. Baltimore, MD. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/2014.pdf. Accessed 4 January 2017.
  9. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (2015). 2015 Annual Sustainability Report. City of Baltimore. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/UPDATED_CS_2015-Final-_June2016-min.pdf. Accessed 4 January 2017.
  10. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (2016a). Sustainability Plan—UPDATE. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/plans/sustainability-plan/update/. Accessed 4 January 2017.
  11. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (2016b, June 17). Baltimore To Receive FEMA Floodplain Award, Residents To Receive Hundreds Of Thousands In Savings. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/baltimore-to-receive-fema-floodplain-award-residents-to-receive-hundreds-of-thousands-in-savings/. Accessed 4 January 2017.
  12. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (n.d.-a). Urban Heat Island Sensors. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/urban-heat-island-sensors/. Accessed 9 April 2016.
  13. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (n.d.-b). Disaster Preparedness Plan. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/plans/disaster-preparedness-plan/. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  14. Baltimore Office of Sustainability. (n.d.-c). Climate Action Plan. http://www.baltimoresustainability.org/plans/climate-action-plan/. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  15. Berube, A., & McDearman, B. (2015, May 11). Good fortune, dire poverty, and inequality in Baltimore: An American story. The Avenue| Rethinking Metropolitan America. http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/the-avenue/posts/2015/05/11-poverty-inequality-baltimore-berube-mcdearman. Accessed 12 March 2016.
  16. Boesch, D. F., Atkinson, L. P., Boicourt, W. C., Boon, J. D., Cahoon, D. R., Dalrymple, R. A., et al. (2013). Updating Maryland’s Sea-level Rise Projections. Special Report of the Scientific and Technical Working Group to the Maryland Climate Change Commission. Cambridge, MD: University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. http://ian.umces.edu/pdfs/ian_report_413.pdf. Accessed 9 April 2016.
  17. Bridges, J. M., & Kaminowitz, M. (2015). Vulnerable Population Index (White Paper). Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Metropolitan Council. http://baltometro.org/phocadownload/Publications/VPIWhitePaperFINAL.pdf. Accessed 1 April 2016.
  18. Cassie, R. (2015, January 5). The Sea Also Rises. Baltimore. http://www.baltimoremagazine.net/2015/1/5/the-sea-also-rises. Accessed 24 February 2016.
  19. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. (n.d.). Climate Action| State and Local Climate Adaptation. http://www.c2es.org/us-states-regions/policy-maps/adaptation. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  20. Chapter 415: Coast Smart Council., Pub. L. No. House Bill 615 (2014). http://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2014RS/Chapters_noln/CH_415_hb0615t.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  21. Consolidated Appropriations Act. 2008. 121 STAT. 1844 (2007). https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ161/pdf/PLAW-110publ161.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  22. de Souza Briggs, X. (2008). Democracy as problem solving: Civic capacity in communities across the globe. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dietz, T., & Stern, P. C. (Eds.). (2008). Public participation in environmental assessment and decision making. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12434.html.
  24. Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000., Pub. L. No. 106–390 (2000). http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1524-20490-1790/dma2000.pdf. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  25. Earth Observatory. (2008, December 20). Urban Heat Island: Baltimore, MD. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=36227. Accessed 10 March 2016.
  26. Ekstrom, J. A., & Moser, S. C. (2014). Identifying and overcoming barriers in urban adaptation efforts to climate change: Case findings from the San Francisco Bay Area, California. USA. Urban Climate, 9(September), 54–74. doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2014.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ewing, J., & Knapp, D. (2009). Sustainability planning toolkit: A comprehensive guide to help cities and counties develop a sustainability plan. Oakland, CA: ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability USA. http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/documents/huddoc?id=20399_iclei_sustainabil.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  28. Executive Office of the President. (2013). The president’s climate action plan. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/image/president27sclimateactionplan.pdf. Accessed 9 April 2016.
  29. Executive Office of the President. (n.d.). Climate Change Resilience. The white house. https://www.whitehouse.gov/node/7256. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  30. Federal Emergency Management Administration. (2015). State mitigation plan review guide (No. FP 302-094-2). Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Administration. http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1425915308555-aba3a873bc5f1140f7320d1ebebd18c6/State_Mitigation_Plan_Review_Guide_2015.pdf. Accessed 9 April 2016.
  31. Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration. (n.d.). Resilience and Climate Change Adaptation. http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1424368115734-86cfbaeb456f7c1d57a05d3e8e08a4bd/FINAL_ResilienceClimateChange_JobAid_19FEB15_508_Complete_.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  32. Gardner, J., Dowd, A.-M., Mason, C., & Ashworth, P. (2009). A framework for stakeholder engagement on climate adaptation (No. CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship Working Paper #3). South Victoria, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. http://www.csiro.au/resources/CAF-working-papers.html.
  33. Heinrichs, D., Krellenberg, K., & Fragkias, M. (2013). Urban responses to climate change: Theories and governance practice in cities of the Global South. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37(6), 1865–1878. doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12031.
  34. Higbee, M. (2014). Integrating hazard mitigation and climate adaptation planning: Case studies and lessons learned. Oakland, CA: ICLEI- Local Governments for Sustainability USA. http://icleiusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Integrating-Hazard-Mitigation-and-Climate-Adaptation-Planning.pdf. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  35. Jacobs, K. L., Wilbanks, T. J., Baughman, B. P., Beachy, R. N., Benjamin, G. C., Buizer, J. L., et al. (2010). Adapting to the impacts of climate change. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12783. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  36. Jenkins-Smith, H., Nohrstedt, D., Weible, C. M., & Sabatier, P. A. (2014). The advocacy coalition framework: Foundations, evolution, and ongoing research. In P. A. Sabatier & C. M. Weible (Eds.), Theories of the policy process (3rd ed., pp. 183–223). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kenney, J. (2016, February 3). Meet A CCANer: Baltimore Community Leader Keisha Allen. Chesapeake Climate Action Network. http://chesapeakeclimate.org/blog/meet-a-ccaner-baltimore-community-leader-keisha-allen/. Accessed 9 April 2016.
  38. Kingdon, J. W. (1995). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. Lazarick, L. (2013, July 30). Rising seas 3: Weird weather and sea level inching to prompt Baltimore to confront future climate. MarylandReporter.com. http://marylandreporter.com/2013/07/30/rising-seas-3-weird-weather-and-sea-level-inching-up-prompt-baltimore-to-confront-future-climate/. Accessed 6 January 2017.
  40. Long, N. E. (1958). The local community as an ecology of games. American Journal of Sociology, 64(3), 251–261. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2773192.
  41. Mackie, J. L. (1980). The cement of the universe: A study of causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maloney, W., Smith, G., & Stoker, G. (2000). Social capital and urban governance: adding a more contextualized “top-down” perspective. Political Studies, 48(4), 802–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin, P. J., & Dennis, A. (Eds.). (2010). Human agents and social structures. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Maryland Climate Coalition. (2016). Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act. Maryland Climate Coalition. http://marylandclimatecoalition.org/factsheets/greenhouse-gas-reduction-act/. Accessed 4 January 2017.
  45. Maryland Commission on Climate Change. (2016). 2016 Annual Report. Annapolis, MD: State of Maryland. http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/Marylander/Documents/MCCC/Publications/2016Report/MCCC_2016_final.pdf. Accessed 4 January 2017.
  46. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. (2010, October 15). Building Resilience to Climate Change. http://www.dnr.maryland.gov/dnrnews/pdfs/climate_change.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  47. McEvoy, D., Lindley, S., & Handley, J. (2006). Adaptation and mitigation in urban areas: Synergies and conflicts. Proceedings of the ICE—Municipal Engineer, 159(4), 185–191. doi:10.1680/muen.2006.159.4.185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mettler, S., & Sorelle, M. (2014). Policy feedback theory. In P. A. Sabatier & C. M. Weible (Eds.), Theories of the Policy Process (3rd ed., pp. 151–182). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  49. Meyer, D. S., & Minkoff, D. C. (2004). Conceptualizing political opportunity. Social Forces, 82(4), 1457–1492. doi:10.1353/sof.2004.0082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moser, S. C. (2009). Good morning, America! The explosive U.S. awakening to the need for adaptation. Santa Cruz, CA: Susanne Moser Research & Consulting. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/11374_MoserGoodMorningAmericaAdaptationin.pdf. Accessed 22 July 2015.
  51. Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development. (n.d.). Social Capital Variables for 1997, 2005, and 2009. http://aese.psu.edu/nercrd/community/social-capital-resources/social-capital-variables-for-1997-2005-and-2009. Accessed 6 January 2017.
  52. O’Malley, M. (2007). Executive Order 01.01.2007.07: Commission on climate change. The State of Maryland. http://www.mde.state.md.us/assets/document/Air/ClimateChange/AppendixA_Executive_Order.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  53. O’Malley, M. (2012). Executive order 01.01.2012.29: Climate change and “Coast Smart” construction. The State of Maryland. http://wetlandswatch.org/Portals/3/WW%20documents/sea-level-rise/exec_order.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  54. O’Malley, M. (2014). Executive order 01.01.2014.14: Strengthening climate action in Maryland. The State of Maryland. http://climatechange.maryland.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/16/2014/12/climate_change_commission_final_eo_01_01_2014_141.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  55. O’Neil-Dunne, J. (2009). A report on the City of Baltimore’s existing and possible urban tree canopy. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont. http://www.fs.fed.us/nrs/utc/reports/UTC_Report_BACI_2007.pdf. Accessed 9 April 2016.
  56. Obama, B. (2009, October 8). Executive Order 13514—Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. U.S. Government Publishing Office. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2009-10-08/pdf/E9-24518.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  57. Obama, B. (2013, November 1). Executive order—preparing the United States for the impacts of climate change. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/11/01/executive-order-preparing-united-states-impacts-climate-change. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  58. Olson, M. (1971). The logic of collective action: Public goods and the theory of groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Ostrom, E., Cox, M., & Schlager, E. (2014). An assessment of the institutional analysis and development framework and introduction of the social-ecological systems framework. In P. A. Sabatier & C. M. Weible (Eds.), Theories of the Policy Process (3rd ed., pp. 267–306). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  60. Parry, M., Canziani, O., Palutikof, J., van der Linden, P., & Hanson, C. (Eds.). (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; contribution of working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ161/pdf/PLAW-110publ161.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2016.
  61. Redding, L. (2013). To protect a city from rising seas: Build barriers or move. Capital News Service|Sea Level Rise in Maryland. http://cnsmaryland.org/sealevelrise/?p=66. Accessed 9 April 2016.
  62. Reutter, M. (2016, November 4). The bureaucrats strike back. Baltimore Brew. https://www.baltimorebrew.com/2016/11/04/the-bureaucrats-strike-back/. Accessed 6 January 2017.
  63. Rosenzweig, C., & Solecki, W. (2010). Introduction to climate change adaptation in New York City: Building a risk management response. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1196(1), 13–18. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05306.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosenzweig, C., Major, D. C., Demong, K., Stanton, C., Horton, R., & Stults, M. (2007). Managing climate change risks in New York City’s water system: Assessment and adaptation planning. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12(8), 1391–1409. doi:10.1007/s11027-006-9070-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rupasingha, A., Goetz, S. J., & Freshwater, D. (2006). The production of social capital in US counties. Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 83–101. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sampson, N. H. K. (2014). Planning for climate change in legacy cities: The case of detroit, Michigan. Michigan Journal of Sustainability, 2. doi:10.3998/mjs.12333712.0002.004.
  67. Sarzynski, A. (2015). Public participation, civic capacity, and climate change adaptation in cities. Urban Climate, 14(1), 52–67. doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2015.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shinn, C. W. (1999). Civic Capacity: Theory, Research and Practice. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 21(1), 103–119. doi:10.1080/10841806.1999.11643352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Skaggs, K. (2015, October 15). CoastSmart communities program. Presented at the Maryland Association of Floodplain and Stormwater Managers, Linthicum Heights, MD. http://mafsm.org/pdf/2015Conf/MAFSM_2015_Skaggs.pdf. Accessed 6 January 2017.
  70. St. Juliana, A., Carney, K., & Vogel, J. (2016). Integrating climate change adaptation into an all-hazards mitigation plan. In Climate adaptation: The state of practice in U.S. communities. Kresge Foundation. http://kresge.org/sites/default/files/library/climate-adaptation-the-state-of-practice-in-us-communities-case-studies.pdf. Accessed 4 January 2017.
  71. State of Maryland. (2013). Greenhouse gas reduction plan; Chapter 8: adaptation. State of Maryland. http://climatechange.maryland.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/16/2014/12/chap8_adaptation_final_lowres1.pdf. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  72. Stone, C. N. (2001). Civic capacity and urban education. Urban Affairs Review, 36(5), 595–619. doi:10.1177/10780870122185019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stone, C. N., Henig, J. R., Jones, B. D., & Pierannunzi, C. (2001). Building civic capacity: The politics of reforming urban schools. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  74. Sweet, W., Park, J., Marra, J., Zervas, C., & Gill, S. (2014). Sea level rise and nuisance flood frequency changes around the United States (No. NOAA Technical Report NOS CO-OPS 073). Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/publications/NOAA_Technical_Report_NOS_COOPS_073.pdf. Accessed 10 March 2016.
  75. The United States Conference of Mayors. (2014). Climate mitigation and adaptation actions in America’s cities: A 282-city survey. Washington, DC. http://usmayors.org/pressreleases/uploads/2014/0422-report-climatesurvey.pdf. Accessed 17 July 2015.
  76. Titus, J. G., Anderson, K. E., Cahoon, D. R., Gesch, D. B., Gill, S. K., Gutierrez, B. T., et al. (2009). Coastal sensitivity to sea-level rise: A focus on the Mid-Atlantic region (No. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1). Washington, DC: U.S. Climate Change Science Program, Environmental Protection Agency. http://downloads.globalchange.gov/sap/sap4-1/sap4-1-final-report-all.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2015.
  77. U.S. Global Change Research Program. (n.d.). Federal adaptation resources. GlobalChange.gov. http://www.globalchange.gov/browse/federal-adaptation-resources. Accessed 4 January 2017.
  78. Wilson, S. G., Plane, D. A., Mackun, P. J., Fischetti, T. R., & Goworowska, J. (2012). Patterns of metropolitan and micropolitan population change: 2000–2010 (Special Report No. C2010SR–01). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/reports/c2010sr-01.pdf. Accessed 20 February 2016.
  79. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed., Vol. 5). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations