Introduction

Chapter
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)

Abstract

Cities are increasingly shaping the trajectory and impacts of climate change. While local actors play a central role in designing the institutions, infrastructures, and behaviors that drive decarbonization and adaptation to changing climatic conditions, their options and incentives are inextricably enmeshed within broader political and economic processes. Resolving these tensions and contradictions is likely to require innovative approaches to governing climate change in the city: new interactions, new political actors, new ways of coordinating and mobilizing resources, and new frameworks and technical capacities for decision-making. This book presents pioneering work on the range of innovative practices, experiments, and ideas that are becoming an integral part of urban climate change governance in the twenty-first century. Theoretically, the book builds on a nearly two-decade history of scholarship identifying the emergence of new urban actors, spaces, and political dynamics in response to climate change. Empirically, the chapters investigate new governance arrangements from around the world and leverage the insights they provide for both theory and practice. The book is organized around four guiding questions: 1) how do multilevel governance arrangements relate to innovation for urban climate change governance? 2) where is the greatest need for innovation? 3) where is innovation difficult or stifled? 4) how can innovation be fostered and encouraged in a multilevel governance context?

Keyword

Cities and climate change Mitigation Adaptation Urban governance 

References

  1. Adger, W. N., Barnett, J., Brown, K., Marshall, N., & O’Brien, K. (2013). Cultural dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 3(2), 112–117. doi:10.1038/nclimate1666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger, W. N., Brown, K., Nelson, D. R., Berkes, F., Eakin, H., Folke, C., et al. (2011). Resilience implications of policy responses to climate change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2(5), 757–766. doi:10.1002/wcc.133.Google Scholar
  3. Albrechts, L. (2004). Strategic (Spatial) planning reexamined. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31(5), 743–758. doi:10.1068/b3065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anguelovski, I., & Carmin, J. (2011). Something borrowed, everything new: Innovation and institutionalization in urban climate governance. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 3(3), 169–175. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2010.12.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anguelovski, I., Chu, E., & Carmin, J. (2014). Variations in approaches to urban climate adaptation: Experiences and experimentation from the global South. Global Environmental Change, 27, 156–167. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.05.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anguelovski, I., Shi, L., Chu, E., Gallagher, D., Goh, K., Lamb, Z., et al. (2016). Equity impacts of urban land use planning for climate adaptation: Critical perspectives from the global north and south. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 36(3), 333–348. doi:10.1177/0739456X16645166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ansar, A., Caldecott, B., & Tilbury, J. (2013). Stranded assets and the fossil fuel divestment campaign: What does divestment mean for the valuation of fossil fuel assets. Oxford, UK: Stranded Assets Programme, SSEE, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  8. Bai, X., McAllister, R. R., Beaty, R. M., & Taylor, B. (2010). Urban policy and governance in a global environment: Complex systems, scale mismatches and public participation. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2(3), 129–135. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2010.05.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, M. (2001). Some reflections on strategic planning processes in three urban regions. Planning Theory & Practice, 2(2), 230–234. doi:10.1080/14649350120068849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartlett, S., & Satterthwaite, D. (Eds.). (2016). Cities on a finite planet: Towards transformative responses to climate change. Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Bauer, A., & Steurer, R. (2014). Innovation in climate adaptation policy: Are regional partnerships catalysts or talking shops? Environmental Politics, 23(5), 818–838. doi:10.1080/09644016.2014.924196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bedsworth, L. W., & Hanak, E. (2010). Adaptation to climate change: A review of challenges and tradeoffs in six areas. Journal of the American Planning Association, 76(4), 477–495. doi:10.1080/01944363.2010.502047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Betsill, M. M., & Bulkeley, H. (2004). Transnational networks and global environmental governance: The cities for climate protection program. International Studies Quarterly, 48(2), 471–493. doi:10.1111/j.0020-8833.2004.00310.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Betsill, M. M., & Bulkeley, H. (2007). Looking back and thinking ahead: A decade of cities and climate change research. Local Environment, 12(5), 447–456. doi:10.1080/13549830701659683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bollinger, L. A., Bogmans, C. W. J., Chappin, E. J. L., Dijkema, G. P. J., Huibregtse, J. N., Maas, N., et al. (2014). Climate adaptation of interconnected infrastructures: A framework for supporting governance. Regional Environmental Change, 14(3), 919–931. doi:10.1007/s10113-013-0428-4.Google Scholar
  16. Brenner, N., & Theodore, N. (2005). Neoliberalism and the urban condition. City, 9(1), 101–107. doi:10.1080/13604810500092106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bulkeley, H. (2010). Cities and the governing of climate change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 35(1), 229–253. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-072809-101747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bulkeley, H., & Betsill, M. (2005). Rethinking sustainable cities: Multilevel governance and the “Urban” politics of climate change. Environmental Politics, 14(1), 42–63. doi:10.1080/0964401042000310178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bulkeley, H., & Betsill, M. M. (2013). Revisiting the urban politics of climate change. Environmental Politics, 22(1), 136–154. doi:10.1080/09644016.2013.755797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulkeley, H., Castán Broto, V., & Edwards, G. A. S. (2015). An urban politics of climate change: Experimentation and the governing of Socio-technical transitions. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Carmin, J., Dodman, D., & Chu, E. (2013). Urban Climate Adaptation and Leadership: From Conceptual Understanding to Practical Action (No. 2013/26). Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). doi:10.1787/5k3ttg88w8hh-en.
  22. Chu, E., Anguelovski, I., & Carmin, J. (2016). Inclusive approaches to urban climate adaptation planning and implementation in the Global South. Climate Policy, 16(3), 372–392. doi:10.1080/14693062.2015.1019822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chu, E. K. (2016). The governance of climate change adaptation through urban policy experiments. Environmental Policy and Governance, 26(6), 439–451. doi:10.1002/eet.1727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chu, E., & Schenk, T. (2017). Communicating about climate change with urban populations and decision-makers. In M. C. Nisbet (Ed.), Oxford research encyclopedia of climate science (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press: Oxford and New York. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.413.
  25. Corfee-Morlot, J., Cochran, I., Hallegatte, S., & Teasdale, P.-J. (2010). Multilevel risk governance and urban adaptation policy. Climatic Change, 104(1), 169–197. doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9980-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davoudi, S., Crawford, J., & Mehmood, A. (Eds.). (2009). Planning for climate change: Strategies for mitigation and adaptation for spatial planners. London and Sterling, VA: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  27. Dilling, L., & Berggren, J. (2015). What do stakeholders need to manage for climate change and variability? A document-based analysis from three mountain states in the Western USA. Regional Environmental Change, 15(4), 657–667. doi:10.1007/s10113-014-0668-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Downs, A. (1967). Inside bureaucracy. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  29. Dulal, H. B., Brodnig, G., & Onoriose, C. G. (2011). Climate change mitigation in the transport sector through urban planning: A review. Habitat International, 35(3), 494–500. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2011.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans, G. (2009). Creative cities, creative spaces and urban policy. Urban Studies, 46(5–6), 1003–1040. doi:10.1177/0042098009103853.
  31. Evans, J., & Karvonen, A. (2014). “Give Me a Laboratory and I Will Lower Your Carbon Footprint!”—Urban laboratories and the Governance of Low-carbon futures. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(2), 413–430. doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Freeman, C. (1991). Networks of innovators: A synthesis of research issues. Research Policy, 20(5), 499–514. doi:10.1016/0048-7333(91)90072-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Friedmann, J. (1986). The world city hypothesis. Development and Change, 17(1), 69–83. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.1986.tb00231.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fünfgeld, H. (2015). Facilitating local climate change adaptation through transnational municipal networks. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 12, 67–73. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2014.10.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Furlow, J., Smith, J. B., Anderson, G., Breed, W., & Padgham, J. (2011). Building resilience to climate change through development assistance: USAID’s climate adaptation program. Climatic Change, 108(3), 411–421. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0127-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giest, S., & Howlett, M. (2013). Comparative climate change governance: Lessons from european transnational municipal network management efforts. Environmental Policy and Governance, 23(6), 341–353. doi:10.1002/eet.1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gordon, D. J. (2013). Between local innovation and global impact: Cities, networks, and the governance of climate change. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 19(3), 288–307. doi:10.1080/11926422.2013.844186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2001). Splintering urbanism: Networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Grimm, N. B., Faeth, S. H., Golubiewski, N. E., Redman, C. L., Wu, J., Bai, X., et al. (2008). Global change and the ecology of cities. Science, 319(5864), 756–760. doi:10.1126/science.1150195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gupta, J., Chu, E., Bos, K., & Kuijten, T. (2017). The Geo-ecological risks of oil investments by China and the global south: The right to development revisited. In M. P. Amineh & G. Yang (Eds.), Geopolitical economy of energy and environment: China and the European Union (pp. 271–304). Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishing.Google Scholar
  41. Hakelberg, L. (2014). Governance by diffusion: Transnational municipal networks and the spread of local climate strategies in europe. Global Environmental Politics, 14(1), 107–129. doi:10.1162/GLEP_a_00216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hallegatte, S. (2009). Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 240–247. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harvey, D. (1989). From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: The transformation in urban governance in late capitalism. Geografiska Annaler, 71(1), 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Himley, M. (2008). Geographies of environmental governance: The nexus of nature and neoliberalism. Geography Compass, 2(2), 433–451. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8198.2008.00094.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hooghe, L., & Marks, G. (2003). Unraveling the central state, but how? Types of Multi-level governance. American Political Science Review, 97(2), 233–243. doi:10.1017/S0003055403000649.Google Scholar
  46. Hughes, S. (2017). The politics of urban climate change policy. Urban Affairs Review, 53(2), 362–380. doi:10.1177/1078087416649756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change.In C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, et al., (Eds.), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Jordan, A., & Huitema, D. (2014). Innovations in climate policy: The politics of invention, diffusion, and evaluation. Environmental Politics, 23(5), 715–734. doi:10.1080/09644016.2014.923614.
  49. Knight, J. (1992). Institutions and social conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Oxford, UK and Malden MA, USA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  51. Low, B., Ostrom, E., Simon, C., & Wilson, J. (2003). Redundancy and diversity: Do they influence optimal management? In F. Berkes, J. Colding, & C. Folke (Eds.), Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change (pp. 83–114). London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. MacCullum, D., Moulaert, F., Hillier, J., & Haddock, S. V. (Eds.). (2009). Social innovation and territorial development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Massey, E., Biesbroek, R., Huitema, D., & Jordan, A. (2014). Climate policy innovation: The adoption and diffusion of adaptation policies across Europe. Global Environmental Change, 29, 434–443. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McFarlane, C. (2009). Translocal assemblages: Space, power and social movements. Geoforum, 40(4), 561–567. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Measham, T. G., Preston, B. L., Smith, T. F., Brooke, C., Gorddard, R., Withycombe, G., et al. (2011). Adapting to climate change through local municipal planning: Barriers and challenges. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 16(8), 889–909. doi:10.1007/s11027-011-9301-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mees, H. L. P., Driessen, P. P. J., & Runhaar, Ha C. (2012). Exploring the scope of public and private responsibilities for climate adaptation. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 14(3), 305–330. doi:10.1080/1523908X.2012.707407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moloney, S., & Fünfgeld, H. (2015). Emergent processes of adaptive capacity building: Local government climate change alliances and networks in Melbourne. Urban Climate, 14, 30–40. doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2015.06.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moore, M., & Hartley, J. (2008). Innovations in governance. Public Management Review, 10(1), 3–20. doi:10.1080/14719030701763161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moser, S. C. (2006). Talk of the city: Engaging urbanites on climate change. Environmental Research Letters, 1(1), 14006. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/1/1/014006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nelson, H. T., Rose, A., Wei, D., Peterson, T., & Wennberg, J. (2015). Intergovernmental climate change mitigation policies: Theory and outcomes. Journal of Public Policy, 35(1), 97–136. doi:10.1017/S0143814X14000117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nelson, R. R. (Ed.). (1993). National innovation systems: A comparative analysis. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Okereke, C., Bulkeley, H., & Schroeder, H. (2009). Conceptualizing climate governance beyond the international regime. Global Environmental Politics, 9(1), 58–78. doi:10.1162/glep.2009.9.1.58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ostrom, E. (2010). Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 20(4), 550–557. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.07.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pahl-Wostl, C. (2009). A conceptual framework for analysing adaptive capacity and multi-level learning processes in resource governance regimes. Global Environmental Change, 19(3), 354–365. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Paris Agreement. (2015). The Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). United Nations.Google Scholar
  66. Parnell, S. (2016). Defining a global urban development agenda. World Development, 78, 529–540. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pressman, J. L. (1975). Federal programs and city politics: The dynamics of the aid process in Oakland. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  68. Revi, A., Satterthwaite, D., Aragon-Durand, F., Corfee-Morlot, J., Kiunsi, R. B. R., Pelling, M., et al. (2014). Towards transformative adaptation in cities: The IPCC’s fifth assessment. Environment and Urbanization, 26(1), 11–28. doi:10.1177/0956247814523539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Richels, R. G., Blanford, G. J., & Rutherford, T. F. (2009). International climate policy: A “second best” solution for a “second best” world? Climatic Change, 97(1–2), 289–296. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9730-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Robinson, J. (2011). Cities in a world of cities: The comparative gesture. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35(1), 1–23. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2010.00982.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W., Hammer, S. A., & Mehrotra, S. (2010). Cities lead the way in climate–change action. Nature, 467(7318), 909–911. doi:10.1038/467909a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Roy, A. (2011). Urbanisms, worlding practices and the theory of planning. Planning Theory, 10(1), 6–15. doi:10.1177/1473095210386065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sellers, J. M. (2002). The Nation-State and urban governance: Toward multilevel analysis. Urban Affairs Review, 37(5), 611–641. doi:10.1177/107808740203700501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shi, L., Chu, E., Anguelovski, I., Aylett, A., Debats, J., Goh, K., et al. (2016). Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research. Nature Climate Change, 6(2), 131–137. doi:10.1038/nclimate2841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sørensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2011). Enhancing collaborative innovation in the public sector. Administration & Society, 43(8), 842–868. doi:10.1177/0095399711418768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Swyngedouw, E. (2004). Globalisation or “glocalisation”? Networks, territories and rescaling. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 17(1), 25–48. doi:10.1080/0955757042000203632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tompkins, E. L., & Eakin, H. (2012). Managing private and public adaptation to climate change. Global Environmental Change, 22(1), 3–11. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Walker, R., & Storper, M. (1989). The Capitalist Imperative: Territory. Wiley-Blackwell: Technology and Industrial Growth.Google Scholar
  79. Watson, V. (2009). Seeing from the South: Refocusing urban planning on the globe’s central urban issues. Urban Studies, 46(11), 2259–2275. doi:10.1177/0042098009342598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wright, D. S. (1988). Understanding intergovernmental relations (3rd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  81. Ziervogel, G., Cowen, A., & Ziniades, J. (2016). Moving from adaptive to transformative capacity: Building foundations for inclusive, thriving, and regenerative urban settlements. Sustainability, 8(9), 955. doi:10.3390/su8090955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zimmerman, R., & Faris, C. (2010). Chapter 4: Infrastructure impacts and adaptation challenges. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1196, 63–85. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05318.x.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.School of Geography, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BirminghamEdgbaston, BirminghamUK
  3. 3.School of Public ServiceBoise State UniversityBoiseUSA

Personalised recommendations