Vectors and Vector Spaces
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In this chapter we discuss a wide range of basic topics related to vectors of real numbers. Some of the properties carry over to vectors over other fields, such as complex numbers, but the reader should not assume this. Occasionally, for emphasis, we will refer to “real” vectors or “real” vector spaces, but unless it is stated otherwise, we are assuming the vectors and vector spaces are real. The topics and the properties of vectors and vector spaces that we emphasize are motivated by applications in the data sciences.