Contested Integration: Class, Race and Education of Second- and Third-Generation Minority Youth, Through the Prism of Critical Pedagogy

  • Fernando Nunes
  • Esra Ari
  • Quentin VerCetty
  • Benjamin Branco
Part of the Advances in Mental Health and Addiction book series (AMHA)



This chapter utilizes the prisms of Segmented Assimilation Theory and Critical Pedagogy as tools to explore the salience of race and social class in the poor educational outcomes and integration of Black Jamaican-Canadian (people of color) and Portuguese-Canadian (white European) children of immigrants.

Main Body and Discussion

Originating from working-class communities, both have been experiencing patterns of Segmented Assimilation, characterized by longstanding academic underachievement, disproportionate rates of early school leaving, and predominance in working-class occupations. The chapter outlines a number of systemic processes within the education system, which have been implicated by Critical Pedagogy in perpetuating this underachievement. The example of both groups presents a case for attributing an equal importance to social class, along with racialization considerations, when investigating the integration of the children of immigrants.


There is a need to fully incorporate anti-oppression practice within the school system, especially those practices which target social class, alongside racial inequality. The findings also call for more school-based support programs that address the effects of economic disadvantage and youth employment initiatives that link working-class minority males to white-collar careers.


Portuguese-Canadians Jamaican-Canadians Youth Education Academic underachievement Social class Racism Racialization Critical pedagogy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Nunes
    • 1
  • Esra Ari
    • 2
  • Quentin VerCetty
    • 3
  • Benjamin Branco
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Child and Youth StudyMount Saint Vincent UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Department of SociologyWestern UniversityLondonCanada
  3. 3.OCAD University (formerly the Ontario College of Art and Design University)TorontoCanada
  4. 4.Department of French Language and Literature & Department of Diaspora and Transnational StudiesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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