Advertisement

Allocation in the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Flax Fibres for the Reinforcement of Composites

  • John SummerscalesEmail author
  • Nilmini P. J. Dissanayake
Conference paper

Abstract

The ISO 14040 series of standards describe the principles and framework for the conduct of life cycle assessment (LCA). The system defines four phases: (i) definition of the goal and scope of the LCA, (ii) the life cycle inventory analysis (LCI), (iii) the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and (iv) the life cycle interpretation. The standards do not describe the LCA technique in detail, nor do they specify methodologies for the individual phases of the LCA. Dependent of the goal and scope, there can be very different outcomes from the analysis. This paper considers how the outcomes might change for the specific case of flax fibres for the reinforcement of composites. The study compares allocation of environmental burdens to two different primary products: (i) flax seed as a nutritional supplement with fibre generated from the waste stream, or (ii) flax fibre as the primary product.

Keywords

Allocation Composites Flax fibre Flax seed Life cycle assessment LCA Reinforcement 

Notes

Acknowledgements

JS is grateful to a series of research degree candidates (Nilmini Dissanayake, Amandeep Singh Virk, Aitor Hernandez Michelena and Hossein Mohammad Khanlou) who helped maintain his interest in natural fibre composites and to the delegates at various conferences for their insight into issues arising around LCA.

References

  1. 1.
    Dissanayake, N. P. J., & Summerscales, J. (2014). Life cycle assessment for natural fibre composites, Chapter 8. In Thakur, V. K. (Ed.), Green composites from natural resources (pp. 157–186). USA: Taylor and Francis Group LLC. ISBN 978-1-4665-7069-6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Summerscales, J., Dissanayake, N., Hall, W., & Virk, A. S. (2010). A review of bast fibres and their composites. Part 1: fibres as reinforcements. Composites Part A Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(10), 1329–1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Summerscales, J., Dissanayake, N., Hall, W., & Virk, A. S. (2010). A review of bast fibres and their composites. Part 2: composites. Composites Part A Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(10), 1336–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Summerscales, J., Virk, A. S., & Hall, W. (2013). A review of bast fibres and their composites. Part 3: Modelling. Composites Part A Applied Science and Manufacturing, 44(1), 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Summerscales, J., & Grove, S. (2014) Manufacturing methods for natural fibre composites, Chapter 7. In Hodzic, A., & Shanks, R. (Eds.), Natural fibre composites: Materials, processes and properties (pp. 176–215). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85709-524-4 (print). ISBN 978-0-85709-922-8 (online).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Summerscales, J., & Gwinnett, C. (2017). Forensic identification of bast fibres. In Roy, D. (Eds.), The industrial development of high-performance biocomposites (pp. 125–164). Elsevier/Woodhead (in press). ISBN 978-0-08-100793-8.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ekvall, T., & Finnveden, G. (2001). Allocation in ISO 14041—A critical review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 9(3), 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    ISO 14040:2006. (2006). Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and frameworks. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, July 31, 2006 (reviewed and confirmed in 2016). ISBN 0-580-48992-2.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ISO 14044:2006. (2006). Environment management—Life cycle assessment—Requirements and guidelines. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, July 31, 2006 (reviewed and confirmed in 2016). ISBN 0-580-48677-X.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dissanayake, N. P. J., Summerscales, J., Grove, S. M., & Singh, M. M. (2009). Energy use in the production of flax fiber for the reinforcement of composites. Journal of Natural Fibers, 6(4), 331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dissanayake, N. P. J., Summerscales, J., Grove, S. M., & Singh, M. M. (2009). Life cycle impact assessment of flax fibre for the reinforcement of composites. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 3(3), 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Le Duigou, A., Davies, P., & Baley, C. (2011). Environmental impact analysis of the production of flax fibres to be used as composite material reinforcement. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 5, 153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ISO/TR 14047:2003(E). (2003). Environmental management—Life cycle impact assessment—Examples of application of ISO14042. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, December 11, 2003 (revised by ISO/TR 14047:2012). ISBN 0-580-43112-6.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Azapagic, A., Emsley, A., & Hamerton, I. (2003). Polymers, the environment and sustainable development. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-87741-7.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Azapagic, A., Perdan, S., & Clift, R. (Eds.). (2004). Sustainable development in practice—Case studies for engineers and scientists. Wiley, May 2004. ISBN 0-470-85609-2. Second edition, 2011: ISBN 978-0-470-71872-8.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ecoinvent Centre: Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories. (2010). May, 24, 2010. Available from: http://www.ecoinvent.org/database/.
  17. 17.
    Montgomery, D. R. (2012). Dirt; The erosion of civilizations. Berkeley & Los Angeles CA: University of California Press April 2012. ISBN 978-0-520-27290-3.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    BS 8905:2011. (2011). Framework for the assessment of the sustainable use of materials. London: Guidance, British Standards Institution.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. (2017). UN General Assembly Report A/HRC/34/48, January 24, 2017.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Summerscales
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nilmini P. J. Dissanayake
    • 1
  1. 1.ACMC, School of EngineeringPlymouth UniversityPlymouthUK

Personalised recommendations