Health System Redesign: Applying Complex Adaptive Systems Approaches
The philosophy of medicine—the value of health services arises from its impact on the health of the people we treat
The person/patient is at the centre of a functional complex adaptive health system
A seamlessly integrated health system has to understand its purpose, goals, and values to devise its unique “simple (operating) rules”. These together determine the core driver for the “system as a whole” as exemplified by the Mayo Clinic’s motto: “The needs of the patient come first”.
This overarching principle does not prevent a health system’s subsystems to adopt their own drivers. However, they need to contribute to the seamless integration of meeting the health system’s overall objectives
This chapter illustrates how people/person-centred complex adaptive systems thinking and interventions can guide the redesign of novel approaches at every organisational level.
Clinical care in the consultation. Drawing causal loop diagrams can provide important insights into the dynamics of a person’s illness. The deeper understanding about the linkages between the biological, social, emotional, and cognitive state of the person’s current illness experience allows a clinician to more effectively integrate the management of the personal, environmental, and medical domains.
Preventing avoidable hospitalisation of the frail elderly. Monitoring the daily changes in frail elderly patients’ health experiences can identify those at risk of avoidable hospitalisation. The main reason resulting in avoidable hospitalisation, surprisingly, is the perception of lack of social support rather than actual deterioration in organ specific function.
Guidelines can be unworkable. When identified, a process known as “positive deviance” allows those affected to quickly develop novel approaches that achieve the desired outcomes. Positive deviance entails (1) to acknowledge that there is a problem, (2) that every individual is part of the problem, (3) that there are barriers to change, and (4) that collective conversations amongst all involved will result in better solutions.
Health system redesign at the community level, particularly in disadvantaged ones, requires community consultation. Since health is a personal experience understanding what impacts on the people’s and community’s health is essential. For example, the most disadvantaged community in Sydney identified community development and renewal, employment skills and opportunities as well as community safety as the top priorities for the improvement of their health.
Community health invariably requires a multi-pronged approach. The “Shape up Somerville” initiative exemplifies this approach. The nutrition department worked with schools to improve pupils’ nutrition knowledge and adapted the canteen’s food offerings. The next step engaged the City Council to improve walk and cycle ways as well as play and sports grounds. Optimisation of the school bus routes allowed more kids to safely walk to the next bus stop rather than needing to be driven to school, and working with food outlets identified those willing to offer healthy food choices.
Health systems need to clearly define their purpose, goals, and values. Purpose, goals, and value statements are the foundations that guide the behaviours and actions of a health system’s agents and thus affect the function of the “health system as a whole”.
As the system emerges over time its purpose and values remained unchanged. What changed are its specific goals in light of newly identified needs.
More effective and efficient care delivery
Greater satisfaction of all involved in health care
Makes the system more sustainable
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