Limits to Adaptation on Climate Change in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Insights and Experiences
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Climate change and increased frequency and intensity of extreme climate events are largely caused by increased pressures on Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) environment, especially in the sectors of agriculture, water management, health, forestry and tourism. Increases in temperature and changes in pluviometric regime in B&H caused dominant, but not limited to, adverse impacts. The increasing variability of weather conditions were recorded in all seasons, with rapid changes that occur over short periods of time (5–10 days) of extremely cold and hot weather, or from the period of extremely high rainfall in dry periods. Since 2000, B&H has faced several significant extreme climate and weather episodes that have caused considerable material and financial losses as well as losses of human lives. The two most remarkable events were drought in 2012 and flood in 2014. The drought of 2012 was particularly severe, and contributed to the decrease of the yields of some crops by 50%. Estimates show that more than 3 billion Euro-worth damage was caused by the drought of 2000, 2003, 2007 and 2012 and over 2 billion Euro by the one in 2014. This paper will present the chances, limitations and experience of B&H to adapt to climate change. The purpose of this paper is to, on the basis of observed and projected climate change, emphasize the necessity of adaptation with a special focus on limitations and barriers. The experience has shown that current adaptation was largely spontaneous and was not thoroughly planned or designed. The constraints of adaptation to climate change in B&H are numerous and are conditioned by correct planning policy, strategy, finance, and knowledge and technology transfer. The paper determined the key constraints and it also points out at the possibility of overcoming barriers and offered possible solutions. An increase in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes suggests that the adaptation in the future must be clearly planned, implemented and controlled.
KeywordsClimate change Bosnia and Herzegovina Adaptation Limitation Experience
The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Government of Republic of Srpska, United Nations Development Programe and Faculty of Science University of Banja Luka for the assistance provided in the research.
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