Limits to Adaptation on Climate Change in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Insights and Experiences
Climate change and increased frequency and intensity of extreme climate events are largely caused by increased pressures on Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) environment, especially in the sectors of agriculture, water management, health, forestry and tourism. Increases in temperature and changes in pluviometric regime in B&H caused dominant, but not limited to, adverse impacts. The increasing variability of weather conditions were recorded in all seasons, with rapid changes that occur over short periods of time (5–10 days) of extremely cold and hot weather, or from the period of extremely high rainfall in dry periods. Since 2000, B&H has faced several significant extreme climate and weather episodes that have caused considerable material and financial losses as well as losses of human lives. The two most remarkable events were drought in 2012 and flood in 2014. The drought of 2012 was particularly severe, and contributed to the decrease of the yields of some crops by 50%. Estimates show that more than 3 billion Euro-worth damage was caused by the drought of 2000, 2003, 2007 and 2012 and over 2 billion Euro by the one in 2014. This paper will present the chances, limitations and experience of B&H to adapt to climate change. The purpose of this paper is to, on the basis of observed and projected climate change, emphasize the necessity of adaptation with a special focus on limitations and barriers. The experience has shown that current adaptation was largely spontaneous and was not thoroughly planned or designed. The constraints of adaptation to climate change in B&H are numerous and are conditioned by correct planning policy, strategy, finance, and knowledge and technology transfer. The paper determined the key constraints and it also points out at the possibility of overcoming barriers and offered possible solutions. An increase in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes suggests that the adaptation in the future must be clearly planned, implemented and controlled.
KeywordsClimate change Bosnia and Herzegovina Adaptation Limitation Experience
The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Government of Republic of Srpska, United Nations Development Programe and Faculty of Science University of Banja Luka for the assistance provided in the research.
- Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo. (2015). http://www.bhas.ba/?option=com_publikacija&id=1&lang=en.
- Avdic, S., et al. (2013). Second National Communication Bosnia and Herzegovina under UNFCCC. http://www.ba.undp.org/content/bosnia_and_herzegovina/bs/home/library/environment_energy/-2013.html.
- Baethgen, W. E., Meinke, H., & Gimene, A. (2003). Adaptation of agricultural production systems to climate variability and climate change: Lessons learned and proposed research approach. Paper presented at climate adaptation.net conference “insights and tools for adaptation: Learning from climate variability,” November 18–20, 2003. Washington, DC. http://www.climateadaptation.net/docs/papers/Baethgen%20Meinke%85z%20NOAA%202003.pdf.
- Climate Change Adaptation and Low-Emission Development Strategy for Bosnia and Herzegovina. http://www.ba.undp.org/content/bosnia_and_herzegovina/en/home/library/environment_energy/climate-change-adaptation-and-low-emission-development-strategy-.html.
- Cramer, W., et al. (2001). Working group II: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, IPCC AR3, Chapter 13-Europe. https://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/wg2/pdf/wg2TARchap13.pdf.
- Djurdjevic, V., & Rajkovic, B. (2008). Verification of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model using satellite observations over the Adriatic Sea. Annals Geophysics, 26, 1935–1954, 2008 © European Geosciences Union 2008. www.ann-geophys.net/26/1935/2008/.
- Documentation and materials, Hydrometeorological Institute of Republica Srpska. http://rhmzrs.com/.
- Documentation and materials Federal Hydrometeorlogical Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina. http://www.fhmzbih.gov.ba/.
- European Comission (EC). (2014). Bosnia and Herzegovina recovery needs assessment, floods 14–19, May. Executive summary. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/press_corner/floods/rna-executive-summary.pdf.
- Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Institute of Statistics. (2015). http://www.fzs.ba/Eng/index.htm.
- INDC, Bosnia and Herzegovina. (2015). http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Bosnia-Herzegovina/1/INDC%20Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina.pdf.
- Jordan et al. (2013) Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Technical papre, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1235.5443
- Klein, R. J. T., Midgley, G. F., Preston, B. L., Alam, M., Berkhout, F. G. H., & Dow, K., et al. (2014). Adaptation opportunities, constraints, and limits. In C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea & L. L. White (Eds.), Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 899–943). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/WGIIAR5-Chap16_FINAL.pdf.
- Republic of Srpska, Institute of Statistics. (2015). http://www.rzs.rs.ba/.
- Roeckner, E., Bäuml, G., Bonaventura, L., Brokopf, R., Esch M., & Giorgetta M., et al. (2003). The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM 5. Part I: Model description, MPI-Report No 349. http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0012-0144-5.
- Smit, B., & Wandel, J. (2006). Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16. http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/annet/sum/SUM4015/h08/Smit.pdf.
- Spasov, D., Bruci, E., Trbic, G., et al. (2008). The South East European climate change framework action plan for adaptation, SEE/VCCC—South East European virtual climate change center and regional environmental center, Belgrade. http://www.seevccc.rs/CCFAP-A/CCFAP-A.pdf, ISBN: 86-7550-058-0.
- Spasov, D., Trbic, G., Trkulja, V., & Majstorovic, Z. (2007). Study for climate change impact assessment on agriculture and adaptions strategy development in Bosnia and Hercegovina, The Government of the Republic of Srpska, Ministry of Construction, Spatial Planning and Ecology, and Regional Environmental Center, Banja Luka.Google Scholar
- The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eartern Europe. (REC). The impacts of climate change on food production in the western Balkan region. http://documents.rec.org/topic-areas/Impacts-climage-change-food-production.pdf.
- Trbic, G., Bajic, D., Popov, T., & Oprasic, S. (2013). Problems of drought in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Herald, 17. Banja Luka. www.gdrsbl.org.
- Trbić, G., Đurđević, V., Bajić, D., Cupać, R., Vukmir, G., Popov, T. (2014). Climate change and adaptation options in Bosnia and Herzegovina—Case study in agriculture. In The international conference “ADAPT to CLIMATE”, Filoxenia conference Centre in Nicosia, Cyprus, on March 27th & 28th, 2014.Google Scholar
- Vukmir, G., et al. (2009). First National Communication Bosnia and Herzegovina under UNFCCC. http://www.ba.undp.org/content/bosnia_and_herzegovina/en/home/library/environment_energy/the-initial-national-communication–inc-.html.
Laws and Regulations
- Law on spatial planning and construction (Official Gazette of Republic of Srpska, No: 40/13, 2/15, 106/15, 3/16).Google Scholar
- Book of rules for the methodology of preparation, content and forming of spatial planning documents (Official Gazette of Republic of Srpska, No. 69/13).Google Scholar
- Law on spatial planning and use of land at the level of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, No. 2/06, 72/07, 32/08, 4/10, 13/10, 45/10).Google Scholar
- Decree on unique methodology for prepation oh planning documents (Offical Gazzeteof Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, No. 63/04, 50/07, 84/10)Google Scholar