Skip to main content

Evolutionary Approaches to Understanding Religion

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Religion, Crime and Punishment

Abstract

The ubiquity of religion, cross-culturally and historically, suggests that it is likely to have an evolutionary basis. In this chapter we critically review evolutionary approaches to understanding religion by looking, in turn, at three main perspectives: religion as a by-product, religion as an adaptation, and religion as the product of cultural evolutionary processes. It is argued that each of these approaches can potentially account for important aspects of religion and that frameworks which integrate by-product and adaptationist accounts and draw on the idea of cultural evolution are particularly promising.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Abell, F., Happe, F., & Frith, U. (2000). Do triangles play tricks? Attribution of mental states to animated shapes in normal and abnormal development. Cognitive Development, 15, 1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amore, R. C. (2014). Buddhist traditions. In W. G. Oxtoby, R. C. Amore, & A. Hussain (Eds.), World religions: Eastern traditions (3rd ed., pp. 184–261). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Atkinson, Q. D., & Bourrat, P. (2011). Beliefs about God, the afterlife and morality support the role of supernatural policing in human cooperation. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 32, 41–49. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.07.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Atkinson, Q. D., & Whitehouse, H. (2011). The cultural morphospace of ritual form: Examining modes of religiosity cross-culturally. Evolution and Human Behavior, 32, 50–62. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.09.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barrett, J. L. (2007). Cognitive science of religion: What is it and why is it? Religion Compass, 1, 768–786. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2007.00042x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barrett, J. L. (2012). Born believers: The science of children’s religious belief. New York, NY: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baumard, N., & Boyer, P. (2013). Explaining moral religions. Trends in Cognitive Science, 17, 272–280. doi:10.1016/j. tics.2013.04.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baumard, N., & Chevallier, C. (2015). The nature and dynamics of world religions: A life-history approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20151593. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1593

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bellah, R. N. (2011). Religion in human evolution: From the palaeolithic to the axial age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Bering, J. (2011). The belief instinct: The psychology of souls, destiny, and the meaning of life. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bering, J., & Bjorklund, D. F. (2004). The natural emergence of reasoning about the afterlife as a developmental regularity. Developmental Psychology, 40, 217–233. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boehm, C. (2012). Moral origins: The evolution of virtue, altruism, and shame. New York, NY: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Botero, C. A., Gardner, B., Kirby, K. R., Bulbulia, J., Gavin, M. C., & Gray, R. D. (2014). The ecology of religious beliefs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 16784–16789. doi:10.1073/pnas.1408701111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bourrat, P. (2015). Origins and evolution of religion from a Darwinian point of view: Synthesis of different theories. In T. Heams, P. Huneman, G. Lecointre, & M. Silberstein (Eds.), Handbook of evolutionary thinking in the sciences (pp. 761–780). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyer, P. (2001). Religion explained: The human instincts that fashion gods, spirits and ancestors. London, UK: William Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, D. E. (1991). Human universals. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, G. R., Dickins, T. E., Sear, R., & Laland, K. N. (2011). Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366, 313–324. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, G. R., & Richerson, P. J. (2014). Applying evolutionary theory to human behaviour: Past differences and current debates. Journal of Bioeconomics, 16, 105–128. doi:10.1007/s10818-013-9166-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bulbulia, J. (2006). Nature’s medicine: Religiosity as an adaptation for health and cooperation. In P. McNamara (Ed.), Where god and science meet: How brain and evolutionary studies alter our understanding of religion (vol. 1, pp. 87–121). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bulbulia, J., & Sosis, R. (2011). Signalling theory and the evolution of religious cooperation. Religion, 41, 363–388. doi:10.1080/0048721X.2011.604508

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buss, D. M. (1995). Evolutionary psychology: A new paradigm for psychological science. Psychological inquiry, 6, 1–30. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0601_1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buss, D. M., Haselton, M. G., Shackelford, T. K., Bleske, A. L., & Wakefield, J. C. (1998). Adaptation, exaptations, and spandrels. American Psychologist, 53, 533–548. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.53.5.533

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Confer, J. C., Easton, J. A., Fleischman, D. S., Goetz, C. D., Lewis, D. M. G., Perilloux, C., & Buss, D. M. (2010). Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations. American Psychologist, 65, 110–126. doi:10.1037/a0018413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2013). Evolutionary psychology: New perspectives on cognition and motivation. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 201–229. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131628

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dawkins, R. (2006). The god delusion. London, UK: Black Swan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunbar, R. I. M. (2013). The origin of religion as a small-scale phenomenon. In S. Clarke, R. Powell, & J. Savulescu (Eds.), Religion, intolerance, and conflict: A scientific and conceptual investigation (pp. 48–66). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Durrant, R., Adamson, S., Todd, F., & Sellman, D. (2009). Drug use and addiction: An evolutionary perspective. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 1049–1056. doi:10.3109/00048670903270449

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Durrant, R., & Ellis, B. J. (2013). Evolutionary psychology. In R. J. Nelson & S. J. Y. Mizumori (Eds.), Handbook of psychology, Vol. 3. Behavioral neuroscience (2nd ed., pp. 26–51). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

  • Durrant, R., & Haig, B. D. (2001). How to pursue the adaptationist program in psychology. Philosophical Psychology, 14, 357–380. doi:10.1080/09515080120088067

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Durrant, R., & Thakker, J. (2003). Substance use and abuse: Cultural and historical perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durrant, R., & Ward, T. (2011). Evolutionary explanations in the social and behavioural sciences. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16, 361–370. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Durrant, R., & Ward, T. (2012). The role of evolutionary explanations in criminology. Journal of Philosophical and Theoretical Criminology, 4, 1–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durrant, R., & Ward, T. (2015). Evolutionary criminology: Toward a comprehensive explanation for crime. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fischer, R., Callander, R., Reddish, P., & Bulbulia, J. (2013). How do rituals affect cooperation? Human Nature, 24, 115–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gervais, W. M. (2013). Perceiving minds and gods: How mind perception enables, constrains, and is triggered by belief in gods. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 8, 380–394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gould, S. J., & Lewontin, R. C. (1979). The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences, 205, 581–598.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hafer, C. L., & Sutton, R. (2016). Belief in a just world. In C. Sabbagh & M. Schmitt (Eds.), Handbook of social justice theory and research (pp. 145–160). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, D. L., Cohen, A. B., Meyer, K. K., Varley, A. H., & Brewer, G. A. (2015). Costly signalling increases trust, even across religious affiliations. Psychological Science, 26, 1368–1376. doi:10.1177/0956797615576473

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henrich, J. (2016). The secret of our success: How learning from others drove human evolution, domesticated our species, and made us smart. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, D. (2016). God is watching you: How the fear of God makes us human. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, D., & Reeve, Z. (2013). The virtues of intolerance: Is religion as an adaptation for war? In S. Clarke, R. Powell, & J. Savulescu (Eds.), Religion, intolerance, and conflict: A scientific and conceptual investigation (pp. 67–83). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, D. D. (2005). God’s punishment and public goods. Human Nature, 16(4), 410–446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, K. A., Li, Y. J., & Cohen, A. B. (2017). Fundamental social motives and the varieties of religious experience. Religion, Brain & Behaviour. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/2153599X.2014.918684

  • Jost, J. T., Hawkins, C. B., Nosek, B. A., Hennes, E. P., Stern, C., Gosling, S. D., & Graham, J. (2014). Belief in a just god (and a just society): A system justification perspective on religious ideology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 34, 56–81. doi:10.1037/a0033220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kanazawa, S. (2015). Where do gods come from? Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 7, 306–313. doi:10.1037/re10000033

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelemen, D. (2004). Are children “intuitive theists”? Reasoning about purpose and design in nature. Psychological Science, 15, 295–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly, R. L. (2013). The lifeways of hunter-gatherers: The foraging spectrum. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick, L. (2005). Attachment, evolution, and the psychology of religion. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick, L. (2006). Religion is not an adaptation. In P. McNamara (Ed.), Where god and science meet: How brain and evolutionary studies alter our understanding of religion (vol. 1, pp. 159–179). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick, L. (2011). The role of evolutionary psychology within an interdisciplinary science of religion. Religion, 41, 329–339. doi:10.1080/0048721X.2011.604511

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lanman, J. A., & Buhrmester, M. D. (2017). Religious actions speak louder than words: Exposure to credibility-enhancing displays predicts theism. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 7, 3–16. doi:10.1080/2153599X.2015.1117011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McCauley, R. N. (2011). Why religion is natural and science is not. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mesoudi, A. (2011). Cultural evolution: How Darwinian theory can explain culture and synthesise the social sciences. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, S. D. (2009). Unsimple truths: Science, complexity, and policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Morris, I. (2014). War, what is it good for? The role of conflict in civilization, from primates to robots. London, UK: Profile Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nettle, D., Gibson, M. A., Lawson, D. W., & Sear, R. (2013). Human behavioral ecology: Current research and future prospects. Behavioral Ecology, 24, 1031–1040. doi:10.1093/beheco/ars222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norenzayan, A. (2013). Big gods: How religion transformed cooperation and conflict. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Norenzayan, A. (2016). Theodiversity. Annual Review of Psychology. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033426

  • Norenzayan, A., Gervais, W. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2012). Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in personal God. PloS ONE, 7, e36880.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norenzayan, A., Shariff, A. F., Willard A. K., Slingerland, W. E., Gervais, R. A., McNamara, R. A., & Henrich, J. (2016). The cultural evolution of prosocial religions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Advance Online Publication.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peoples, H. C., Duda, P., & Marlowe, F. W. (2016). Hunter-gatherers and the origins of religion. Human Nature. Advance Online Publication, 27, 261–282.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peoples, H. C., & Marlowe, F. W. (2012). Subsistence and the evolution of religion. Human Nature, 23, 253–269. doi:10.1007/s12110-012-9148-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Power, E. A. (2017). Discerning devotion: Testing the signalling theory of religion. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38, 82–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.07.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Powell, R., & Clarke, S. (2012). Religion as an evolutionary byproduct: A critique of the standard model. British Journal of the Philosophy of Science, 63, 457–486. doi:10.1093/bjps/axr035

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reddish, P., Tok, P., & Kundt, R. (2016). Religious cognition and behaviour in autism: The role of mentalizing. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 95–112. doi:10.1080/10508619.2014.1003518

  • Repstad, P., & Furseth, I. (2013). Introduction to the sociology of religion. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richerson, P., Baldini, R., Bell, A. V., Demps, K., Frost, K., Hillis, V., … Ross, C. (2016). Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence. Behavioural and Brain Sciences. e30. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X1400106X.

  • Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2005). Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richerson, P. J., & Newson, L. (2008). Is religion adaptive. Yes, No, Neutral, but mostly, we don’t know. In J. Bulbulia, R. Sosis, & E. Harris (Eds.), The evolution of religion: Studies, theories & critiques. Santa Margarita, CA: Foundation Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Riekki, T., Lindeman, M., & Raij, T. T. (2014). Supernatural believers attribute more intentions to random movements than skeptics: An fMRI study. Social Neuroscience, 9, 400–411. doi:10.1080/17470919.2014.906366

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roes, F. L., & Raymond, M. (2003). Belief in moralizing gods. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 126–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rottman, J., Zhu, L., Wang, W., Schillaci, R. S., Clark, K. J., & Kelemen, D. (2017). Cultural influences on the teleological stance: Evidence from China. Religion, Brain & Behaviour, 7, 17–26. doi:10.1080/2153599X.1118402

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scarre, C. (2013). The human past: World prehistory and the development of human societies (3rd ed.). London, UK: Thames & Hudson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schloss, J. P., & Murray, M. J. (2011). Evolutionary accounts of belief in supernatural punishment: A critical review. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 1, 46–99. doi:10.1080/2153599X.2011.558707

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schmitt, D. P., & Fuller, R. C. (2015). On the varieties of sexual experience. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 7, 314–326. doi:10.1037/re10000036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smart, N., & Denny, F. (2007). Atlas of the world’s religions (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, E. A., Mulder, M., & Hill, K. (2001). Controversies in the evolutionary social sciences: A guide for the perplexed. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 128–135. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(00)02077-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, Z., & Arrow, H. (2010). Evolutionary perspectives on religion: An overview and synthesis. EvoS Journal: The Journal of the Evolutionary Studies Consortium, 2, 48–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sosis, R. (2009). The adaptationist-byproduct debate on the evolution of religion: Five misunderstandings of the adaptationist program. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 9, 315–332. doi:10.1163/156770909X12518536414411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sosis, R., & Alcorta, C. (2003). Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behaviour. Evolutionary Anthropology, 12, 264–274.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sosis, R., & Bressler, E. R. (2003). Cooperation and commune longevity: A test of the costly signalling theory of religion. Cross-Cultural Research, 37, 211–239. doi:10.1177/1069397103251426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sosis, R., & Bulbulia, J. (2011). The behavioural ecology of religion: The benefits and costs of one evolutionary approach. Religion, 41, 341–362. doi:10.1080/0048721X.2011.604514

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Strassman, B. I., Kurapati, N. T., Hug, E. E., Gillespie, B. W., Karafet, T. M., & Hammer, M. F. (2012). Religion as a means to assure paternity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 9781–9785. doi:10.1037/pnas.1110442109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stringer, C. (2011). The origin of our species. London, UK: Allen Lane.

    Google Scholar 

  • Terrizzi, J. A. (2017). Is religion an evolutionarily evoked disease-avoidance strategy? Religion, Brain & Behaviour. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/2153599.x.2016.1249918.

  • Thornhill, R., & Fincher, C. L. (2014). The parasite-stress theory of values and sociality: Infectious disease, history, and human values worldwide. New York, NY: Springer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Thury, E. M., & Devinney, M. K. (2005). Introduction to mythology: Contemporary approaches to classical and world myths. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tinbergen, N. (1963). On aims and methods in ethology. Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410–433. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1963.tb01161.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turhcin, P. (2016). Ultra society: How 10,000 years of war made humans the greatest cooperators on earth. Chaplin, CT: Beresta Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watts, F., & Bretherton, R. (2017). “Religion” is complex and diverse. Religion, Brain & Behavior. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/2153599X.2016.1249930.

  • Watts, J., Greenhill, S. J., Atkinson, Q. D., Currie, T. E., Bulbulia, J., & Gray, R. D. (2015). Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 282. doi:10.1098/respb.2014.2556

  • Weeden, J., & Kurzban, R. (2013). What predicts religiosity? A multidimensional analysis of reproductive and cooperative morals. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 34, 440–445. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.08.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, C., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. (2017). What are the causes and consequences of belief in Karma. Religion, Brain & Behaviour. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/2153599X.2016.1249921

  • Whitehouse, H., Francois, P., & Turchin, P. (2015). The role of ritual in the evolution of social complexity: Five predictions and a drum roll. Cliodynamics, 6, 199–216.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitehouse, H., & Lanman, J. A. (2014). The ties that bind us: Ritual, fusion, and identification. Current Anthropology, 55, 674–695. doi:10.1086/678698

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, G. C. (1966). Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, D. S. (2002). Darwin’s cathedral: Evolution, religion, and the nature of society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, D. S., & Green, W. S. (2011). Evolutionary religious studies: A beginner’s guide. In E. Slingerland & M. Collard (Eds.), Creating consilience: Integrating the sciences and the humanities (pp. 225–242). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, D. S., & Wilson, E. O. (2007). Rethinking the theoretical foundations of sociobiology. Quarterly Review of Biology, 82, 327–348. doi:10.1086/522809

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, E. O. (1978). On human nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wlodarski, R., & Pearce, E. (2016). The God allusion: Individual variation in agency detection, mentalizing and schizotypy and their association with religious beliefs and behaviours. Human Nature, 27, 160–172. doi:10.1007/s12110-016-9256-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wood, B., & Baker, J. (2011). Evolution in the genus Homo. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 42, 47–69. doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-102209-144653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xygalatas, D., Mitkidis, P., Fischer, R., Reddish, P., Skewes, J., Feertz, A. W., & Bulbulia, J. (2013). Extreme rituals promote prosociality. Psychological Science, 24, 1602–1605. doi:10.1177/0956797612472910

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zahavi, A., & Zahavi, A. (1997). The handicap principle: A missing piece of Darwin’s puzzle. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Durrant, R., Poppelwell, Z. (2017). Evolutionary Approaches to Understanding Religion. In: Religion, Crime and Punishment. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64428-8_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64428-8_2

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-64427-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-64428-8

  • eBook Packages: Law and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics