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A Sixteen-Command and 40 Hz Carrier Frequency Code-Modulated Visual Evoked Potential BCI

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Brain-Computer Interface Research

Part of the book series: SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering ((BRIEFSELECTRIC))


We present successful results, based on testing with nine healthy users, demonstrating an innovative brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm. The new paradigm utilizes a code- modulated visual evoked potential (cVEP), with a relatively high carrier frequency of 40 Hz (which is about the threshold that human vision can detect) using pseudo-random pattern flashing stimuli. These visual stimuli are very perceptually friendly and, due to their wide frequency spectral patterns, not prone to triggering epileptic seizures. To generate higher frequency stimulation than state-of-the-art steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) or cVEP-based BCIs, we utilize the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) driven from an ARDUINO DUE board with a software generator designed by our team.

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Correspondence to Tomasz M. Rutkowski .

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Aminaka, D., Rutkowski, T.M. (2017). A Sixteen-Command and 40 Hz Carrier Frequency Code-Modulated Visual Evoked Potential BCI. In: Guger, C., Allison, B., Lebedev, M. (eds) Brain-Computer Interface Research. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Springer, Cham.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-64372-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-64373-1

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