The Nature and Evolution of Genomic Diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1019)

Abstract

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) consists of a clonal group of several mycobacterial lineages pathogenic to a range of different mammalian hosts. In this chapter, we discuss the origins and the evolutionary forces shaping the genomic diversity of the human-adapted MTBC. Advances in whole-genome sequencing have brought invaluable insights into the macro-evolution of the MTBC, and the biogeographical distribution of the different MTBC lineages, the phylogenetic relationships between these lineages. Moreover, micro-evolutionary processes start to be better understood, including those influencing bacterial mutation rates and those governing the fate of new mutations emerging within patients during treatment. Current genomic and epidemiological evidence reflect the fact that, through ecological specialization, the MTBC affecting humans became an obligate and extremely well-adapted human pathogen. Identifying the adaptive traits of human-adapted MTBC and unraveling the bacterial loci that interact with human genomic variation might help identify new targets for developing better vaccines and designing more effective treatments.

Keywords

co-evolution, virulence, adaptation, mutation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank all the members of our group for the stimulating discussions. Work in our group is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 310030_166687, IZRJZ3_164171 and IZLSZ3_170834), the European Research Council (309540-EVODRTB), SystemsX.ch, and the Novartis Foundation.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swiss Tropical and Public Health InstituteBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.University of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Swiss Tropical and Public Health InstituteUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland

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