A Literature Survey on Integration of Wind Energy and Formal Structure of Buildings at Urban Scale

  • Serpil Paltun
  • Arzuhan Burcu Gültekin
  • Gülser Çelebi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 7)


Providing the needed and indispensable steady, quality and safe energy is one of the most important issues today. Wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy source. Wind energy has found uses much more in water pumping and obtaining electricity in rural areas until last years. Today, wind energy has taken its place in the energy sector as an alternative source of energy production. High-density building arrays within a city, the combination of indoor and outdoor spaces with different purposes effect wind flow and acceptable wind comfort. In urban areas, wind energy and wind comfort are important requirements. Not only in new urbanisation areas but also for existing urban areas and city centers acceptable wind comfort plays an important role among and around buildings. When viewed from this angle, the aim of this study is enlightening the building aerodynamics, wind effect and wind energy in urban environment, and also giving information about how to analyze the wind comfort and design criteria in dense urban areas.


Wind energy Wind comfort Building’s formal structure 


  1. 1.
    Akkaya AV, Akkaya EK, Dağdaş A (2002) Environmental assessment of renewable energy sources. IV. National clean energy symposium, İstanbul, pp 37–43Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bu Z, Kato S, Ishida Y, Huang (2009) New criteria for assessing local wind environment at pedestrian level based on exceedance probability analysis. Build Environ 44:1501–1508. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang A, Gao C, Zhang L (2005) Numerical simulation of the wind field around different building arrangements. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 93:891–904. doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2005.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chan CM, Chui JKL, Huang MF (2009) Integrated aerodynamic load determination and stiffness. Design optimization of tall buildings. Struct Des Tall Spec Build 18:59–80. doi: 10.1002/tal.397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murakami S, Ooka R, Yoshida S, Kim S (1999) CFD analysis of wind climate from human scale to urban scale. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 81:57–81. doi: 10.1016/S0167-6105(99)00009-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roberson JA, Crowe CT (1978) Pressure distribution on model buildings at small angles of attack in turbulent flow. In: proc. 3rd US Natl. Conf. on Wind Engineering Research, University of Florida, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahmad s, Kumar K (2001) Interference effect of wind loads on low-rise hip roof buildings. Eng Struct 23(12):1577–1589Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aygün C, Başkaya Ş (2003) Experimental investigation of surface pressures caused by wind flow around a multi-story building. Gazi University Engineering architecture faculty magazine 18(4):15–31Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mendis P, Ngo T, Haritos N, Hira A, Samali B, Cheung J (2007) Wind loads on tall buildings. EJSE (Special Issues: Loading on Structures):41–54Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Holmes JD, Tamura Y, Krishna P (2008) Wind loads on low, medium and high rise buildings by Asia-Pasific codes. The 4th International Conference on Advances in Wind and Structures, Jeju, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Şafak E (2011) Account of wind loads on high rise buildings. The chamber of civil engineers 4th national steel constructions symposium, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang S, Li QS, Xu S (2006) Numerical evolution of wind effects on a tall steel building by CFD. J Constr Steel Res 63(5): 612–627Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liang S, Li QS, Liu S, Zhang L, Gu M (2004) Torsional dynamic wind loads on rectangular tall buildings. Eng Struct 26(1):129–137Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huang G, Chen X (2007) Wind load effects and equivalent static wind loads of tall buildings based on synchronous pressure measurements. Eng Struct 29(10):2641–2653Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tominaga Y, Mochida A, Yoshie R, Kataoka H, Nozu T, Yoshikawa M, Shirasawa T (2008) AIJ guidelines for practical applications of CFD to pedestrian wind environment around buildings. J Wind Eng Ind Aerod 96(10–11):1749–1761Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huang MF, Lau IWH, Chan CM, Kwok, KCS, Li G (2011) A hybrid RANS and kinematic simulation of wind load effects on full scale tall buildings. J Wind Eng Ind Aerod 99(11):1126–1138Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cheung JOP, Liu CH (2011) CFD simulations of natural ventilation behaviour in high-rise buildings in regular and staggered arrangements at various spacings. Energ Buil 43(5):1149–1158Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blocken B, Janssen WD, van Hoof T (2012) CFD simulation for pedestrian wind comfort and wind safety in urban areas: general decision framework and case study for the Eindhoven University Campus. Environ Model Softw 30:15–34Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kanbur BB, Pınarbaşı A, Koca A (2013) Investigation of the natural ventilation resulting from the effects of wind loads on high-rise buildings in HAD environment. Eng Mach 54(637):44–53Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mochida A, Lun IYF (2008) Prediction of wind environment and thermal comfort at pedestrian level in urban area. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 96:1498–1527Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lawson TV (1980) Wind effects on buildings design applications. Applied Science Publishers, London, p 45. doi: 10.1016/0141-0296(82)90037-2
  22. 22.
    Istanbul Branch of the Chamber of Mechanical Engineers.
  23. 23.
    Çağlar M, Canbaz M (2002) Turkey wind energy potential. IV. National clean energy symposium, İstanbul, pp 347–355Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bozdoğan B (2003) Architectural design and ecology. Master thesis, YTÜ Institute of Science and Technology, İstanbul, pp 2–124Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aynsley RM, Melbourne W, Vıckery BJ (1977) Architectural aerodynamics, vol 3(1). Applied Science Publication, London, p 32Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Istanbul High Buildings Wind Directive (2009) Metropolitan Mayor of Istanbul, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Whole Building Design Guide.
  28. 28.
    Ilgın HE, Günel MH (2007) The role of aerodynamic modifications in the form of tall buildings against wind excitation. Metu JFA Ankara 2:17–25 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    You K, Kim Y (2009) The wind-induced response characteristics of a typical tall buildings. Struct Des Tall Spec Build Korea 18:217–233. doi: 10.1002/tal.419
  30. 30.
    Kareem A, Kıjewskı T, Tamura Y (1999) Mitigation of motion of tall buildings with recent applications. Wind Struct 2(3):201–251Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ali M, Armstrong P (1995) Architecture of tall buildings. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, p 52Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schueller W (1977) High-rise building structures. Wiley, New York, pp 26–33Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dutton R, Isyumov N (1990) Reduction of tall building motion by aerodynamic treatments. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn. doi: 10.1016/0167-6105(90)90416-A
  34. 34.
    Ishugah TF, Li Y, Wang RZ, Kiplagat JK (2014) Anvances in wind energy resource exploitation in urban environment: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 37:613–626. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.053
  35. 35.
    Çakmak SP (2006) 20th century change in architectural design strategies: reasons and direction of change. Master thesis, Gazi University Institute of Science and Technology, Ankara, pp 43–50Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bachman LR (2003) Integrated buildings. Wiley, New York, pp 3–48Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture, Faculty of ArchitectureGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Faculty of Applied SciencesAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Interior Architecture, Faculty of ArchitectureÇankaya UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations