History of Liver Transplantation
Thomas Starzl (1926–2017) began clinical liver transplantation in Denver, CO USA in 1963, soon followed by Roy Calne (1930–) in Cambridge UK. These two surgical pioneers built multidisciplinary teams and collaborated closely over the following two decades, overcoming enormous technical, biological and societal obstacles to establish transplantation as the only curative treatment for most forms of end-stage liver disease. The procedure was widely accepted by the mid-1980s, and today more than 25,000 liver transplants are performed each year worldwide.
This achievement involved tireless effort, intelligent use of advances in other fields, and occasional serendipity, but was also built on decades of work by others. This chapter will outline the early, hard-won advances in vascular surgery, immunology, organ preservation, and transplantation of the kidney that preceded successful liver transplantation, and will describe the further evolution of liver transplantation in the...
KeywordsRejection Immunosuppression Surgical technique Organ preservation Brain death Caval anastomosis
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