Liver Surgery: Early Complications—Liver Failure, Bile Leak and Sepsis

  • Albert C. Y. Chan
  • Sheung Tat Fan


Liver resection remains to be the curative treatment of choice for both malignant and benign liver tumors. With advances in hepatic surgery and operative technique, liver resection has evolved from a rough and hasty procedure to a fine and delicate operation. Such surgical advances have resulted in a dramatic reduction of operative mortality, from over 50% in early series, to less than 10% in recent decades. Targeting a ‘zero’ mortality has even become a realistic goal to achieve. However, the postoperative complications rate remains largely unchanged over the years despite reduction in operative mortality and is in the range of 20–30%. Liver failure, bile leak and sepsis are serious complications that could lead to a fatal outcome. In this chapter, we will present our approach for prevention, diagnosis and management of these complications.

With adequate remnant liver volume and absence of co-morbid illness, liver failure is the most common cause of mortality after...


Indocyanine green (ICG) clearance Liver function reserve Hepatectomy Portal vein embolization Liver failure Biliary complications 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryThe University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary HospitalHong KongPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Liver Surgery CentreHong Kong Sanatorium and HospitalHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

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