Respiratory Failure and ARDS

  • James Y. Findlay
  • Mark T. Keegan


Pulmonary complications are common in the period immediately after liver transplantation (LTx) to the point that they are almost an expected consequence of the procedure. Approximately one-fifth of patients with end-stage liver disease are hypoxemic pretransplant and hypoxemia may worsen in the post-operative period because of alterations in the mechanics of respiration. The published prevalence of pleural effusion, atelectasis and interstitial pulmonary edema is up to 87% [1, 2, 3]. Fortunately, the majority of these cases are of little clinical consequence with resolution occurring rapidly without the need for complex interventions and without adversely affecting outcome [1].

In some cases, however, more serious pulmonary complications such as pneumonia, persistent or late pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) develop. These may require prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) management and mechanical ventilation with consequent increases in patient...


Restrictive lung disease Hydrothorax Ventilation Non-invasive ventilation Ventilator associated pneumonia Pulmonary edema 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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