Intraoperative Monitoring

  • Claus G. Krenn
  • Marko Nicolic


Liver transplantation (LTx) has made great strides over the last decades and evolved towards a well-established procedure offered in hundreds of transplant programs in more than 80 countries worldwide. Despite this impressive progress, challenges in liver transplantation have only shifted and transplantation still remain costly and resource-intensive [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].

The decreasing number of contraindications to liver transplantation (resulting in more co-morbidities) and use of marginal grafts require optimal monitoring of perioperative therapy [3, 4, 5]. Early recognition of homeostatic disturbances and their timely treatment may improve outcome and decrease perioperative mortality.

Liver failure affects all organ systems and induces hemodynamic, hematological, metabolic and other homeostatic abnormalities; successful management of patients undergoing liver transplantation requires comprehensive monitoring of all these systems [6].

Only few recommendations on best...


Pulmonary artery catheter Pulse pressure variation Neurological monitoring Hemodynamic monitoring Cardiac output Transesophageal echocardiography 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain MedicineMedical University of Vienna, General Hospital ViennaViennaAustria

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