Coccidioides and Coccidioidomycosis

  • Marcus M. Teixeira
  • Bridget M. BarkerEmail author


Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii are the causative agents of coccidioidomycosis, or San Joaquin Valley Fever. The disease was first described in 1892 in Argentina, and its distribution and frequency investigated into the mid-1900s. National reporting has measured a recent increase in disease burden in the United States. All mammals appear to be susceptible to infection; however disease manifestation varies from asymptomatic to lethal. Several thousand cases of the disease are reported annually in the United States. We discuss the epidemiology, diagnostics, virulence factors, and treatment options for coccidioidomycosis.



We wish to thank Dr. John N Galgiani and Dr. Neil Ampel, University of Arizona Valley Fever Center for Excellence, University of Arizona College of Medicine for critical comments in the preparation of this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Brown J, Benedict K, Park BJ, Thompson GR 3rd (2013) Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology. Clin Epidemiol 5:185–197PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nguyen C, Barker BM, Hoover S, Nix DE, Ampel NM, Frelinger JA, Orbach MJ, Galgiani JN (2013) Recent advances in our understanding of the environmental, epidemiological, immunological, and clinical dimensions of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 26:505–525PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stockamp NW, Thompson GR 3rd (2016) Coccidioidomycosis. Infect Dis Clin N Am 30:229–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Posadas A (1892) Un Nuevo Caso De Micosis Fungoide Con Psorospermias. Círculo Médico Argentino 52:11Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hirschmann JV (2007) The early history of coccidioidomycosis: 1892-1945. Clin Infect Dis 44:1202–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Negroni R (2011) Historia Del Descubrimiento De La Coccidioidomicosis. Rev Argent Dermatol 92(3):1118Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burt A, Carter DA, Koenig GL, White TJ, Taylor JW (1996) Molecular markers reveal cryptic sex in the human pathogen Coccidioides Immitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:770–773PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burt A, Dechairo BM, Koenig GL, Carter DA, White TJ, Taylor JW (1997) Molecular markers reveal differentiation among isolates of Coccidioides Immitis from California, Arizona and Texas. Mol Ecol 6:781–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koufopanou V, Burt A, Szaro T, Taylor JW (2001) Gene genealogies, cryptic species, and molecular evolution in the human pathogen Coccidioides Immitis and relatives (Ascomycota, Onygenales). Mol Biol Evol 18:1246–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koufopanou V, Burt A, Taylor JW (1997) Concordance of gene genealogies reveals reproductive isolation in the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides Immitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:5478–5482PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fisher MC, Koenig GL, White TJ, Taylor JW (2002) Molecular and phenotypic description of Coccidioides Posadasii Sp. Nov., previously recognized as the non-California population of Coccidioides Immitis. Mycologia 94:73–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fisher MC, Koenig GL, White TJ, San-Blas G, Negroni R, Alvarez IG, Wanke B, Taylor JW (2001) Biogeographic range expansion into South America by Coccidioides Immitis mirrors new world patterns of human migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4558–4562PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Litvintseva AP, Marsden-Haug N, Hurst S, Hill H, Gade L, Driebe EM, Ralston C, Roe C, Barker BM, Goldoft M et al (2015) Valley fever: finding new places for an old disease: Coccidioides Immitis found in Washington state soil associated with recent human infection. Clin Infect Dis 60:E1–E3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Engelthaler DM, Roe CC, Hepp CM, Teixeira M, Driebe EM, Schupp JM, Gade L, Waddell V, Komatsu K, Arathoon E et al (2016) Local population structure and patterns of western hemisphere dispersal for Coccidioides Spp., the fungal cause of valley fever. MBio 7(2):e00550PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Teixeira MM, Barker BM (2016) Use of population genetics to assess the ecology, evolution, and population structure of Coccidioides. Emerg Infect Dis 22:1022–1030PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Neafsey DE, Barker BM, Sharpton TJ, Stajich JE, Park DJ, Whiston E, Hung CY, Mcmahan C, White J, Sykes S et al (2010) Population genomic sequencing of Coccidioides fungi reveals recent hybridization and transposon control. Genome Res 20:938–946PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Del Rocio Reyes-Montes M, Perez-Huitron MA, Ocana-Monroy JL, Frias-De-Leon MG, Martinez-Herrera E, Arenas R, Duarte-Escalante E (2016) The habitat of Coccidioides Spp. and the role of animals as reservoirs and disseminators in nature. BMC Infect Dis 16:550PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shubitz LF (2007) Comparative aspects of coccidioidomycosis in animals and humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:395–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ampel NM (2005) Coccidioidomycosis in persons infected with Hiv type 1. Clin Infect Dis 41:1174–1178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bergstrom L, Yocum DE, Ampel NM, Villanueva I, Lisse J, Gluck O, Tesser J, Posever J, Miller M, Araujo J et al (2004) Increased risk of coccidioidomycosis in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Arthritis Rheum 50:1959–1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blair JE, Logan JL (2001) Coccidioidomycosis in solid organ transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 33:1536–1544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Borchers AT, Gershwin ME (2010) The immune response in coccidioidomycosis. Autoimmun Rev 10:94–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dierberg KL, Marr KA, Subramanian A, Nace H, Desai N, Locke JE, Zhang S, Diaz J, Chamberlain C, Neofytos D (2012) Donor-derived organ transplant transmission of coccidioidomycosis. Transpl Infect Dis 14:300–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mertz LE, Blair JE (2007) Coccidioidomycosis in rheumatology patients: incidence and potential risk factors. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:343–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Santelli AC, Blair JE, Roust LR (2006) Coccidioidomycosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 119:964–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Durry E, Pappagianis D, Werner SB, Hutwagner L, Sun RK, Maurer M, Mcneil MM, Pinner RW (1997) Coccidioidomycosis in Tulare County, California, 1991: Reemergence of an endemic disease. J Med Vet Mycol 35:321–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Leake JA, Mosley DG, England B, Graham JV, Plikaytis BD, Ampel NM, Perkins BA, Hajjeh RA (2000) Risk factors for acute symptomatic Coccidioidomycosis among elderly persons in Arizona, 1996-1997. J Infect Dis 181:1435–1440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pappagianis D, Lindsay S, Beall S, Williams P (1979) Ethnic background and the clinical course of coccidioidomycosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 120:959–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rosenstein NE, Emery KW, Werner SB, Kao A, Johnson R, Rogers D, Vugia D, Reingold A, Talbot R, Plikaytis BD et al (2001) Risk factors for severe pulmonary and disseminated coccidioidomycosis: Kern County, California, 1995-1996. Clin Infect Dis 32:708–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ruddy BE, Mayer AP, Ko MG, Labonte HR, Borovansky JA, Boroff ES, Blair JE (2011) Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans. Mayo Clin Proc 86:63–69PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Odio CD, Marciano BE, Galgiani JN, Holland SM (2017) Risk factors for disseminated coccidioidomycosis, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 23(2):308PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lewis ER, Bowers JR, Barker BM (2015a) Dust devil: the life and times of the fungus that causes valley fever. PLoS Pathog 11:E1004762PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cox RA, Magee DM (2004) Coccidioidomycosis: host response and vaccine development. Clin Microbiol Rev 17:804–839PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    De Perio MA, Niemeier RT, Burr GA (2015) Coccidioides exposure and coccidioidomycosis among prison employees, California, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 21:1031–1033PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Drips W Jr, Smith CE (1964) Epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis. A contemporary military experience. JAMA 190:1010–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smith CE, Saito MT, Simons SA (1956) Pattern of 39,500 serologic tests in coccidioidomycosis. J Am Med Assoc 160:546–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wack EE, Ampel NM, Sunenshine RH, Galgiani JN (2015) The return of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing for coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 61:787–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ampel NM (2015) The treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 57(Suppl 19):51–56PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Galgiani JN, Ampel NM, Blair JE, Catanzaro A, Geertsma F, Hoover SE, Johnson RH, Kusne S, Lisse J, Macdonald JD et al (2016) 2016 infectious diseases society of America (Idsa) clinical practice guideline for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 63:E112–E146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Valdivia L, Nix D, Wright M, Lindberg E, Fagan T, Lieberman D, Stoffer T, Ampel NM, Galgiani JN (2006) Coccidioidomycosis as a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis 12:958–962PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Blair JE, Chang YH, Cheng MR, Vaszar LT, Vikram HR, Orenstein R, Kusne S, Ho S, Seville MT, Parish JM (2014) Characteristics of patients with mild to moderate primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Emerg Infect Dis 20:983–990PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Berman RJ, Friedman L, Roessler WG, Smith CE (1956) The virulence and infectivity of twenty-seven strains of Coccidioides Immitis. Am J Hyg 64:198–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Friedman L, Smith CE (1957) The comparison of four strains of Coccidioides Immitis with diverse histories. Mycopathol Mycol Appl 8:47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Friedman L, Smith CE, Gordon LE (1955) The assay of virulence of Coccidioides in white mice. J Infect Dis 97:311–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hugenholtz PG, Reed RE, Maddy KT, Trautman RJ, Barger JD (1958) Experimental coccidioidomycosis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 19:433–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kirkland TN, Fierer J (1983) Inbred mouse strains differ in resistance to lethal Coccidioides Immitis infection. Infect Immun 40:912–916PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Blair JE (2007) State-of-the-art treatment of coccidioidomycosis: skin and soft-tissue infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:411–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Garcia Garcia SC, Salas Alanis JC, Flores MG, Gonzalez Gonzalez SE, Vera Cabrera L, Ocampo Candiani J (2015) Coccidioidomycosis and the skin: a comprehensive review. An Bras Dermatol 90:610–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mischel PS, Vinters HV (1995) Coccidioidomycosis of the central nervous system: Neuropathological and Vasculopathic manifestations and clinical correlates. Clin Infect Dis 20:400–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keckich DW, Blair JE, Vikram HR (2010) Coccidioides Fungemia in six patients, with a review of the literature. Mycopathologia 170:107–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang CY, Jerng JS, Ko JC, Lin MF, Hsiao CH, Lee LN, Hsueh PR, Kuo SH (2005) Disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Emerg Infect Dis 11:177–179PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bonifaz A, Vazquez-Gonzalez D, Perusquia-Ortiz AM (2011) Endemic systemic mycoses: coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 9:705–714. Quiz 715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Colombo AL, Tobon A, Restrepo A, Queiroz-Telles F, Nucci M (2011) Epidemiology of endemic systemic fungal infections in Latin America. Med Mycol 49:785–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schwartz IS, Kenyon C, Thompson GR (2016) Endemic mycoses: What’s new about old diseases? Curr Clin Microbiol Rep 3:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sifuentes-Osornio J, Corzo-Leon DE, Ponce-De-Leon LA (2012) Epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in Latin America. Curr Fungal Infect Rep 6:23–34PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Comrie AC (2005) Climate factors influencing coccidioidomycosis seasonality and outbreaks. Environ Health Perspect 113:688–692PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pappagianis D (1988) Epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis. Curr Top Med Mycol 2:199–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Smith CE, Beard RR et al (1946) Effect of season and dust control on coccidioidomycosis. J Am Med Assoc 132:833–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sorooshian A, Wonaschutz A, Jarjour EG, Hashimoto BI, Schichtel BA, Betterton EA (2011) An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties. J Geophys Res Atmos 116:16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Comrie AC, Glueck MF (2007) Assessment of climate-coccidioidomycosis model: model sensitivity for assessing climatologic effects on the risk of acquiring coccidioidomycosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:83–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001) Coccidioidomycosis in workers at an Archeologic site—dinosaur National Monument, Utah, June-July 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50:1005–1008Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Eulalio KD, De Macedo RL, Cavalcanti MA, Martins LM, Lazera MS, Wanke B (2001) Coccidioides Immitis isolated from armadillos (Dasypus Novemcinctus) in the state of Piaui, Northeast Brazil. Mycopathologia 149:57–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Flynn NM, Hoeprich PD, Kawachi MM, Lee KK, Lawrence RM, Goldstein E, Jordan GW, Kundargi RS, Wong GA (1979) An unusual outbreak of windborne coccidioidomycosis. N Engl J Med 301:358–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Johnson L, Gaab EM, Sanchez J, Bui PQ, Nobile CJ, Hoyer KK, Peterson MW, Ojcius DM (2014) Valley fever: danger lurking in a dust cloud. Microbes Infect 16:591–600PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pappagianis D, Einstein H (1978) Tempest from Tehachapi takes toll or Coccidioides conveyed aloft and afar. West J Med 129:527–530PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schneider E, Hajjeh RA, Spiegel RA, Jibson RW, Harp EL, Marshall GA, Gunn RA, Mcneil MM, Pinner RW, Baron RC et al (1997) A coccidioidomycosis outbreak following the Northridge, Calif, earthquake. JAMA 277:904–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Williams PL, Sable DL, Mendez P, Smyth LT (1979) Symptomatic coccidioidomycosis following a severe natural dust storm. An outbreak at the naval Air Station, Lemoore, Calif. Chest 76:566–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Barker B, Tabor JA, Shubitz LF, Perrill R, Orbach MJ (2012) Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Coccidioides Posadasii in Arizona soil samples. Fungal Ecol 5:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Barker BM, Jewell KA, Kroken S, Orbach MJ (2007) The population biology of Coccidioides: epidemiologic implications for disease outbreaks. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:147–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Untereiner WA, Scott JA, Naveau FA, Sigler L, Bachewich J, Angus A (2004) The Ajellomycetaceae, a new family of vertebrate-associated Onygenales. Mycologia 96:812–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Burmester A, Shelest E, Glockner G, Heddergott C, Schindler S, Staib P, Heidel A, Felder M, Petzold A, Szafranski K et al (2011) Comparative and functional genomics provide insights into the pathogenicity of Dermatophytic fungi. Genome Biol 12:R7PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sharpton TJ, Stajich JE, Rounsley SD, Gardner MJ, Wortman JR, Jordar VS, Maiti R, Kodira CD, Neafsey DE, Zeng Q et al (2009) Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives. Genome Res 19:1722–1731PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Whiston E, Taylor JW (2015) Comparative Phylogenomics of pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. G3 (Bethesda) 6:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Brillhante RS, Moreira Filho RE, Rocha MF, Castelo-Branco Dde S, Fechine MA, Lima RA, Picanco YV, Cordeiro Rde A, Camargo ZP, Queiroz JA et al (2012) Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceara, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 107:813–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Catalan-Dibene J, Johnson SM, Eaton R, Romero-Olivares AL, Baptista-Rosas RC, Pappagianis D, Riquelme M (2014) Detection of Coccidioidal antibodies in serum of a small rodent community in Baja California, Mexico. Fungal Biol 118:330–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cordeiro RA, Brilhante RS, Rocha MF, Fechine MA, Camara LM, Camargo ZP, Sidrim JJ (2006) Phenotypic characterization and ecological features of Coccidioides Spp. from Northeast Brazil. Med Mycol 44:631–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sharapov VM (1971) Mycotic elements in the lungs of wild mammals resembling spherules of Coccidiodes Immitis. Vestn Dermatol Venerol 45:50–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ajello L, Budurin AA, Maddy KT, Moore JC, Reed RE (1956) Ecological and Epizootiological studies on canine coccidioidomycosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 129:485–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Beaman L, Holmberg C, Henrickson R, Osburn B (1980) The incidence of coccidioidomycosis among nonhuman primates housed outdoors at the California primate research Center. J Med Primatol 9:254–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Blundell GP, Castleberry MW, Lowe EP, Converse JL (1961) The pathology of Coccidioides Immitis in the Macaca Mulatta. Am J Pathol 39:613–630PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grayzel SE, Martinez-Lopez B, Sykes JE (2016) Risk factors and spatial distribution of canine coccidioidomycosis in California, 2005-2013. Transbound Emerg Dis 64(4):1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hoffman K, Videan EN, Fritz J, Murphy J (2007) Diagnosis and treatment of ocular coccidioidomycosis in a female captive chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes): a case study. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:404–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Reed RE, Converse JL (1966) The seasonal incidence of canine coccidioidomycosis. Am J Vet Res 27:1027–1030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rosenberg DP, Gleiser CA, Carey KD (1984) Spinal coccidioidomycosis in a baboon. J Am Vet Med Assoc 185:1379–1381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Straub M, Trautman RJ, Greene JW (1961) Coccidioidomycosis In 3 Coyotes. Am J Vet Res 22:811–813Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jessup D, Kock N, Berbach M (1989) Coccidioidomycosis in a desert bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis Nelsoni) from California. J Zoo Wildl Med 20:3Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Morrow W (2006) Holocene coccidioidomycosis: valley fever in early Holocene bison (bison Antiquus). Mycologia 98:669–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Prchal CJ (1948) Coccidioidomycosis Of Cattle In Arizona. J Am Vet Med Assoc 112:461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Higgins JC, Leith GS, Pappagianis D, Pusterla N (2006) Treatment of Coccidioides Immitis pneumonia in two horses with fluconazole. Vet Rec 159:349–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maleski K, Magdesian KG, Lafranco-Scheuch L, Pappagianis D, Carlson GP (2002) Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in a neonatal foal. Vet Rec 151:505–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ziemer EL, Pappagianis D, Madigan JE, Mansmann RA, Hoffman KD (1992) Coccidioidomycosis in horses: 15 cases (1975-1984). J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:910–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Reed, R.E., Ingram, K.A., Reggiardo, C., Shupe, M.R. (1996). Coccidioidomycosis in domestic and wild animals. Paper Presented at: 5th International conference on coccidioidomycosis (National Foundation For Infectious Disease)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Timm KI, Sonn RJ, Hultgren BD (1988) Coccidioidomycosis in a Sonoran gopher snake, Pituophis Melanoleucus Affinis. J Med Vet Mycol 26:101–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cordeiro Rde A, e Silva KR, Brilhante RS, Moura FB, Duarte NF, Marques FJ, Filho RE, De Araujo RW, Bandeira Tde J, Rocha MF et al (2012) Coccidioides Posadasii infection in bats, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 18:668–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Greene RT, Troy GC (1995) Coccidioidomycosis in 48 cats: a retrospective study (1984-1993). J Veterin Intern Med 9:86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Huckabone SE, Gulland FM, Johnson SM, Colegrove KM, Dodd EM, Pappagianis D, Dunkin RC, Casper D, Carlson EL, Sykes JE et al (2015) Coccidioidomycosis and other systemic mycoses of marine mammals stranding along the Central California, Usa coast: 1998-2012. J Wildl Dis 51:295–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Krutzsch PH, Watson RH (1978) Isolation of Coccidioides Immitis from bat guano and preliminary findings on laboratory infectivity of bats with Coccidioides Immitis. Life Sci 22:679–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Reed RE, Migaki G, Cummings JA (1976) Coccidioidomycosis in a California Sea lion (Zalophus Californianus). J Wildl Dis 12:372–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Reidarson TH, Griner LA, Pappagianis D, Mcbain J (1998) Coccidioidomycosis in a bottlenose dolphin. J Wildl Dis 34:629–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) Increase in reported coccidioidomycosis—United States, 1998-2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62:217–221Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Galgiani JN (2007) Coccidioidomycosis: changing perceptions and creating opportunities for its control. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:1–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Thompson GR 3rd, Stevens DA, Clemons KV, Fierer J, Johnson RH, Sykes J, Rutherford G, Peterson M, Taylor JW, Chaturvedi V (2015) Call for a California coccidioidomycosis consortium to face the top ten challenges posed by a recalcitrant regional disease. Mycopathologia 179:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Twarog M, Thompson GR 3rd (2015) Coccidioidomycosis: recent updates. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 36:746–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Panackal AA, Hajjeh RA, Cetron MS, Warnock DW (2002) Fungal infections among returning Travelers. Clin Infect Dis 35:1088–1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sunenshine RH, Anderson S, Erhart L, Vossbrink A, Kelly PC, Engelthaler D, Komatsu K (2007) Public health surveillance for coccidioidomycosis in Arizona. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:96–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Johannesson H, Kasuga T, Schaller RA, Good B, Gardner MJ, Townsend JP, Cole GT, Taylor JW (2006) Phase-specific gene expression underlying morphological adaptations of the dimorphic human pathogenic fungus, Coccidioides Posadasii. Fungal Genet Biol 43:545–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pappagianis D, Smith CE, Kobayashi GS (1956) Relationship of the in vivo form of Coccidioides Immitis to virulence. J Infect Dis 98:312–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Whiston E, Zhang Wise H, Sharpton TJ, Jui G, Cole GT, Taylor JW (2012) Comparative Transcriptomics of the Saprobic and parasitic growth phases in Coccidioides Spp. PLoS One 7:E41034PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hung CY, Xue J, Cole GT (2007) Virulence mechanisms of Coccidioides. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:225–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Walch HA, Kalvoda A (1971) Immunization of mice with induced mutants of Coccidioides Immitis. I. Characterization of mutants and preliminary studies of their use as viable vaccines. Sabouraudia 9:173–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Boyce KJ, Andrianopoulos A (2015) Fungal dimorphism: the switch from hyphae to yeast is a specialized morphogenetic adaptation allowing colonization of a host. FEMS Microbiol Rev 39:15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gauthier GM (2015) Dimorphism in fungal pathogens of mammals, plants, and insects. PLoS Pathog 11:E1004608PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rappleye CA, Goldman WE (2006) Defining virulence genes in the dimorphic fungi. Annu Rev Microbiol 60:281–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Viriyakosol S, Singhania A, Fierer J, Goldberg J, Kirkland TN, Woelk CH (2013b) Gene expression in human fungal pathogen Coccidioides Immitis changes as Arthroconidia differentiate into spherules and mature. BMC Microbiol 13:121PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Grys TE, Kaushal S, Chowdhury Y, Dasari S, Mitchell NM, Magee DM, Blair JE, Colby TV, Lake DF (2016) Total and Lectin-binding proteome of Spherulin from Coccidioides Posadasii. J Proteome Res 15:3463–3472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Cole GT, Hung CY (2001) The parasitic Cell Wall of Coccidioides Immitis. Med Mycol 39(Suppl 1):31–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cole GT, Kirkland TN, Franco M, Zhu S, Yuan L, Sun SH, Hearn VM (1988a) Immunoreactivity of a Surface Wall fraction produced by spherules of Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 56:2695–2701PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Cole GT, Seshan KR, Franco M, Bukownik E, Sun SH, Hearn VM (1988b) Isolation and morphology of an Immunoreactive Outer Wall fraction produced by spherules of Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 56:2686–2694PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Levine HB, Cobb JM, Smith CE (1961) Immunogenicity of spherule-endospore vaccines of Coccidioides Immitis for mice. J Immunol 87:218–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Cole GT, Kirkland TN (1993) Identification of antigens of Coccidioides Immitis which stimulated immune T lymphocytes. Arch Med Res 24:281–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Cole GT, Kruse D, Seshan KR (1991) Antigen complex of Coccidioides Immitis which elicits a precipitin antibody response in patients. Infect Immun 59:2434–2446PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hung CY, Ampel NM, Christian L, Seshan KR, Cole GT (2000b) A major cell surface antigen of Coccidioides Immitis which elicits both Humoral and cellular immune responses. Infect Immun 68:584–593PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hung CY, Yu JJ, Seshan KR, Reichard U, Cole GT (2002) A parasitic phase-specific Adhesin of Coccidioides Immitis contributes to the virulence of this respiratory fungal pathogen. Infect Immun 70:3443–3456PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pan S, Cole GT (1995) Molecular and biochemical characterization of a Coccidioides Immitis-specific antigen. Infect Immun 63:3994–4002PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Cole GT, Zhu SW, Hsu LL, Kruse D, Seshan KR, Wang F (1992) Isolation and expression of a gene which encodes a wall-associated proteinase of Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 60:416–427PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Yuan L, Cole GT, Sun SH (1988) Possible role of a proteinase in Endosporulation of Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 56:1551–1559PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hung CY, Seshan KR, Yu JJ, Schaller R, Xue J, Basrur V, Gardner MJ, Cole GT (2005b) A metalloproteinase of Coccidioides Posadasii contributes to evasion of host detection. Infect Immun 73:6689–6703PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lu SW, Kroken S, Lee BN, Robbertse B, Churchill AC, Yoder OC, Turgeon BG (2003) A novel class of gene controlling virulence in plant pathogenic Ascomycete fungi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:5980–5985PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Narra HP, Shubitz LF, Mandel MA, Trinh HT, Griffin K, Buntzman AS, Frelinger JA, Galgiani JN, Orbach MJ (2016) A Coccidioides Posadasii Cps1 deletion mutant is Avirulent and protects mice from lethal infection. Infect Immun 84:3007–3016PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rutherford JC (2014) The emerging role of urease as a general microbial virulence factor. PLoS Pathog 10:E1004062PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Yu JJ, Smithson SL, Thomas PW, Kirkland TN, Cole GT (1997) Isolation and characterization of the urease gene (Ure) from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides Immitis. Gene 198:387–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mirbod F, Schaller RA, Cole GT (2002) Purification and characterization of urease isolated from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides Immitis. Med Mycol 40:35–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Li K, Yu JJ, Hung CY, Lehmann PF, Cole GT (2001a) Recombinant urease and urease DNA of Coccidioides Immitis elicit an Immunoprotective response against coccidioidomycosis in mice. Infect Immun 69:2878–2887PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wise HZ, Hung CY, Whiston E, Taylor JW, Cole GT (2013) Extracellular ammonia at sites of pulmonary infection with Coccidioides Posadasii contributes to severity of the respiratory disease. Microb Pathog 59-60:19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Mandel MA, Galgiani JN, Kroken S, Orbach MJ (2006) Coccidioides Posadasii contains single chitin synthase genes corresponding to classes I to vii. Fungal Genet Biol 43:775–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hector RF, Zimmer BL, Pappagianis D (1990b) Evaluation of Nikkomycins X and Z in murine models of coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis, and Blastomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34:587–593PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Shubitz LF, Roy ME, Nix DE, Galgiani JN (2013a) Efficacy of Nikkomycin Z for respiratory coccidioidomycosis in naturally infected dogs. Med Mycol 51:747–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Shubitz LF, Trinh HT, Perrill RH, Thompson CM, Hanan NJ, Galgiani JN, Nix DE (2014) Modeling Nikkomycin Z dosing and pharmacology in murine pulmonary coccidioidomycosis preparatory to phase 2 clinical trials. J Infect Dis 209:1949–1954PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Pishko EJ, Kirkland TN, Cole GT (1995) Isolation and characterization of two Chitinase-encoding genes (Cts1, Cts2) from the fungus Coccidioides Immitis. Gene 167:173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Xue J, Chen X, Selby D, Hung CY, Yu JJ, Cole GT (2009a) A genetically engineered live attenuated vaccine of coccidioides Posadasii protects Balb/C mice against coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun 77:3196–3208PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Skeldon A, Saleh M (2011) The Inflammasomes: molecular effectors of host resistance against bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infections. Front Microbiol 2:15PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Galgiani JN (1985) Studies of the effects of Spherulin from Coccidioides Immitis on human Polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Mycopathologia 90:107–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Galgiani JN, Hayden R, Payne CM (1982) Leukocyte effects on the dimorphism of Coccidioides Immitis. J Infect Dis 146:56–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Galgiani JN (1986) Inhibition of different phases of Coccidioides Immitis by human neutrophils or hydrogen peroxide. J Infect Dis 153:217–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lee CY, Thompson GR 3rd, Hastey CJ, Hodge GC, Lunetta JM, Pappagianis D, Heinrich V (2015) Coccidioides endospores and spherules draw strong chemotactic, adhesive, and phagocytic responses by individual human neutrophils. PLoS One 10:E0129522PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Beaman L (1987) Fungicidal activation of murine macrophages by recombinant gamma interferon. Infect Immun 55:2951–2955PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Beaman L, Benjamini E, Pappagianis D (1981) Role of lymphocytes in macrophage-induced killing of Coccidioides Immitis in vitro. Infect Immun 34:347–353PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Galgiani JN (1995) Differences in oxidant release by human Polymorphonuclear leukocytes produced by stimulation with different phases of Coccidioides Immitis. J Infect Dis 172:199–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Shubitz LF, Dial SM, Perrill R, Casement R, Galgiani JN (2008) Vaccine-induced cellular immune responses differ from innate responses in susceptible and resistant strains of mice infected with Coccidioides Posadasii. Infect Immun 76:5553–5564PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Capone D, Marchiori E, Wanke B, Dantas KE, Cavalcanti MA, Deus Filho A, Escuissato DL, Warszawiak D (2008) Acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis: Ct findings from 15 patients. Br J Radiol 81:721–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Beaman L, Benjamini E, Pappagianis D (1983) Activation of macrophages by Lymphokines: enhancement of Phagosome-lysosome fusion and killing of Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 39:1201–1207PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Beaman L, Holmberg CA (1980) In vitro response of alveolar macrophages to infection with Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 28:594–600PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Cox RA, Magee DM (1995) Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 alpha, and interleukin-6 during murine coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun 63:4178–4180PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Slagle DC, Cox RA, Kuruganti U (1989) Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by spherules of Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 57:1916–1921PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Magee DM, Cox RA (1995) Roles of gamma interferon and interleukin-4 in genetically determined resistance to Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 63:3514–3519PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Magee DM, Cox RA (1996) Interleukin-12 regulation of host Defenses against Coccidioides Immitis. Infect Immun 64:3609–3613PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Oldfield EC 3rd, Bone WD, Martin CR, Gray GC, Olson P, Schillaci RF (1997) Prediction of relapse after treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 25:1205–1210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Yoon HJ, Clemons KV (2013) Vaccines Against Coccidioides. Korean J Intern Med 28:403–407PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Dionne SO, Podany AB, Ruiz YW, Ampel NM, Galgiani JN, Lake DF (2006) Spherules derived from Coccidioides Posadasii promote human dendritic cell maturation and activation. Infect Immun 74:2415–2422PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Richards JO, Ampel NM, Galgiani JN, Lake DF (2001) Dendritic cells pulsed with Coccidioides Immitis lysate induce antigen-specific naive T cell activation. J Infect Dis 184:1220–1224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Viriyakosol S, Fierer J, Brown GD, Kirkland TN (2005b) Innate immunity to the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides Posadasii is dependent on toll-like receptor 2 and Dectin-1. Infect Immun 73:1553–1560PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Viriyakosol S, Jimenez Mdel P, Gurney MA, Ashbaugh ME, Fierer J (2013a) Dectin-1 is required for resistance to coccidioidomycosis in mice. MBio 4:E00597–E00512PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hung CY, Gonzalez A, Wuthrich M, Klein BS, Cole GT (2011a) Vaccine immunity to coccidioidomycosis occurs by early activation of three signal pathways of T helper cell response (Th1, Th2, and Th17). Infect Immun 79:4511–4522PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hung CY, Jimenez-Alzate Mdel P, Gonzalez A, Wuthrich M, Klein BS, Cole GT (2014) Interleukin-1 receptor but not toll-like receptor 2 is essential for Myd88-dependent Th17 immunity to Coccidioides infection. Infect Immun 82:2106–2114PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Gazi U, Rosas M, Singh S, Heinsbroek S, Haq I, Johnson S, Brown GD, Williams DL, Taylor PR, Martinez-Pomares L (2011) Fungal recognition enhances mannose receptor shedding through Dectin-1 engagement. J Biol Chem 286:7822–7829PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gonzalez A, Hung CY, Cole GT (2011) Absence of phagocyte Nadph oxidase 2 leads to severe inflammatory response in lungs of mice infected with Coccidioides. Microb Pathog 51:432–441PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Lam JS, Mansour MK, Specht CA, Levitz SM (2005) A model vaccine exploiting fungal Mannosylation to increase antigen immunogenicity. J Immunol 175:7496–7503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Li H, Barker BM, Grahl N, Puttikamonkul S, Bell JD, Craven KD, Cramer RA Jr (2011) The small Gtpase Raca mediates intracellular reactive oxygen species production, polarized growth, and virulence in the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus Fumigatus. Eukaryot Cell 10:174–186PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Robinson MJ, Osorio F, Rosas M, Freitas RP, Schweighoffer E, Gross O, Verbeek JS, Ruland J, Tybulewicz V, Brown GD et al (2009) Dectin-2 is a Syk-coupled pattern recognition receptor crucial for Th17 responses to fungal infection. J Exp Med 206:2037–2051PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Viriyakosol S, Jimenez Mdel P, Saijo S, Fierer J (2014) Neither Dectin-2 nor the mannose receptor is required for resistance to Coccidioides Immitis in mice. Infect Immun 82:1147–1156PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Wang H, Lebert V, Hung CY, Galles K, Saijo S, Lin X, Cole GT, Klein BS, Wuthrich M (2014) C-type Lectin receptors differentially induce Th17 cells and vaccine immunity to the endemic mycosis of North America. J Immunol 192:1107–1119PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Beaman LV, Pappagianis D, Benjamini E (1979) Mechanisms of resistance to infection with Coccidioides Immitis in mice. Infect Immun 23:681–685PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Abuodeh RO, Shubitz LF, Siegel E, Snyder S, Peng T, Orsborn KI, Brummer E, Stevens DA, Galgiani JN (1999) Resistance to Coccidioides Immitis in mice after immunization with recombinant protein or a DNA vaccine of a Proline-rich antigen. Infect Immun 67:2935–2940PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Brown GD, Denning DW, Gow NA, Levitz SM, Netea MG, White TC (2012a) Hidden killers: human fungal infections. Sci Transl Med 4:165rv113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Brown GD, Denning DW, Levitz SM (2012b) Tackling human fungal infections. Science 336:647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Brown GD, Netea MG (2012) Exciting developments in the immunology of fungal infections. Cell Host Microbe 11:422–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Brown JC, Nelson J, Vandersluis B, Deshpande R, Butts A, Kagan S, Polacheck I, Krysan DJ, Myers CL, Madhani HD (2014) Unraveling the biology of a fungal meningitis pathogen using chemical genetics. Cell 159:1168–1187PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Drummond RA, Gaffen SL, Hise AG, Brown GD (2015) Innate defense against fungal pathogens. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 5Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Netea MG, Brown GD (2012) Fungal infections: the next challenge. Curr Opin Microbiol 15:403–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Vautier S, Maccallum DM, Brown GD (2012) C-type Lectin receptors and cytokines in fungal immunity. Cytokine 58:89–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wuthrich M, Gern B, Hung CY, Ersland K, Rocco N, Pick-Jacobs J, Galles K, Filutowicz H, Warner T, Evans M et al (2011) Vaccine-induced protection against 3 systemic mycoses endemic to North America requires Th17 cells in mice. J Clin Invest 121:554–568PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Hung CY, Castro-Lopez N, Cole GT (2016) Card9- and Myd88-mediated gamma interferon and nitric oxide production is essential for resistance to subcutaneous Coccidioides Posadasii infection. Infect Immun 84:1166–1175PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wang H, Li M, Hung CY, Sinha M, Lee LM, Wiesner DL, Lebert V, Lerksuthirat T, Galles K, Suresh M et al (2016) Myd88 shapes vaccine immunity by extrinsically regulating survival of Cd4+ T cells during the contraction phase. PLoS Pathog 12:E1005787PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Lewis ER, David VR, Doyle AL, Rajabi K, Kiefer JA, Pirrotte P, Barker BM (2015b) Differences in host innate responses among Coccidioides isolates in a murine model of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Eukaryot Cell 14:1043–1053PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ampel NM (2010) The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. F1000 med rep 2Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Stevens DA, Clemons KV, Levine HB, Pappagianis D, Baron EJ, Hamilton JR, Deresinski SC, Johnson N (2009) Expert opinion: what to do when there is Coccidioides exposure in a laboratory. Clin Infect Dis 49:919–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Sutton DA (2007) Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis by culture: safety considerations, traditional methods, and susceptibility testing. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:315–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Gromadzki SG, Chaturvedi V (2000) Limitation of the Accuprobe Coccidioides Immitis culture identification test: false-negative results with formaldehyde-killed cultures. J Clin Microbiol 38:2427–2428PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Padhye AA, Smith G, Standard PG, Mclaughlin D, Kaufman L (1994) Comparative evaluation of Chemiluminescent DNA probe assays and exoantigen tests for rapid identification of Blastomyces Dermatitidis and Coccidioides Immitis. J Clin Microbiol 32:867–870PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Saubolle MA, Mckellar PP, Sussland D (2007) Epidemiologic, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of coccidioidomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 45:26–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Pappagianis D (2001) Serologic studies in coccidioidomycosis. Semin Respir Infect 16:242–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Wieden MA, Galgiani JN, Pappagianis D (1983) Comparison of Immunodiffusion techniques with standard complement fixation assay for quantitation of Coccidioidal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 18:529–534PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pappagianis D, Zimmer BL (1990) Serology of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 3:247–268PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kaufman L, Sekhon AS, Moledina N, Jalbert M, Pappagianis D (1995) Comparative evaluation of commercial premier Eia and Microimmunodiffusion and complement fixation tests for Coccidioides Immitis antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 33:618–619PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Blair JE, Coakley B, Santelli AC, Hentz JG, Wengenack NL (2006) Serologic testing for symptomatic coccidioidomycosis in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Mycopathologia 162:317–324PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Durkin M, Connolly P, Kuberski T, Myers R, Kubak BM, Bruckner D, Pegues D, Wheat LJ (2008) Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis with use of the coccidioides antigen enzyme immunoassay. Clin Infect Dis 47:E69–E73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Malo J, Holbrook E, Zangeneh T, Strawter C, Oren E, Robey I, Erickson H, Chahal R, Durkin M, Thompson C et al (2017) Enhanced antibody detection and diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis with the Miravista Igg and Igm detection enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 55(3):893–901PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Johnson SM, Simmons KA, Pappagianis D (2004) Amplification of Coccidioidal DNA in clinical specimens by Pcr. J Clin Microbiol 42:1982–1985PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kishi K, Fujii T, Takaya H, Miyamoto A, Kurosaki A, Kohno T, Yoshimura K (2008) Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis found in healthy Japanese individuals. Respirology 13:252–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Binnicker MJ, Buckwalter SP, Eisberner JJ, Stewart RA, Mccullough AE, Wohlfiel SL, Wengenack NL (2007) Detection of Coccidioides species in clinical specimens by real-time Pcr. J Clin Microbiol 45:173–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Bialek R, Kern J, Herrmann T, Tijerina R, Cecenas L, Reischl U, Gonzalez GM (2004) Pcr assays for identification of Coccidioides Posadasii based on the nucleotide sequence of the antigen 2/Proline-rich antigen. J Clin Microbiol 42:778–783PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    De Aguiar Cordeiro R, Nogueira Brilhante RS, Gadelha Rocha MF, Araujo Moura FE, Pires De Camargo Z, Costa Sidrim JJ (2007) Rapid diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis by nested Pcr assay of sputum. Clin Microbiol Infect 13:449–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Thompson GR 3rd, Barker BM, Wiederhold NP (2017) Large scale evaluation of in vitro amphotericin B, Triazole, and Echinocandin activity against Coccidioides species from United States institutions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 61:e02634PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kim MM, Vikram HR, Kusne S, Seville MT, Blair JE (2011) Treatment of refractory coccidioidomycosis with voriconazole or posaconazole. Clin Infect Dis 53:1060–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Levy ER, Mccarty JM, Shane AL, Weintrub PS (2013) Treatment of Pediatric refractory coccidioidomycosis with combination voriconazole and caspofungin: a retrospective case series. Clin Infect Dis 56:1573–1578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Prabhu RM, Bonnell M, Currier BL, Orenstein R (2004) Successful treatment of disseminated nonmeningeal coccidioidomycosis with Voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis 39:E74–E77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Stevens DA, Rendon A, Gaona-Flores V, Catanzaro A, Anstead GM, Pedicone L, Graybill JR (2007) Posaconazole therapy for chronic refractory coccidioidomycosis. Chest 132:952–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Wollina U, Hansel G, Vennewald I, Schonlebe J, Tintelnot K, Seibold M, Kittner T (2009) Successful treatment of relapsing disseminated coccidioidomycosis with cutaneous involvement with Posaconazole. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 7:46–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Johnson RH, Einstein HE (2007) Amphotericin B and coccidioidomycosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:434–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Antony SJ, Jurczyk P, Brumble L (2006) Successful use of combination antifungal therapy in the treatment of Coccidioides meningitis. J Natl Med Assoc 98:940–942PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Bajema KL, Dalesandro MF, Fredricks DN, Ramchandani M (2017) Disseminated coccidioidomycosis presenting with intramedullary spinal cord abscesses: management challenges. Med Mycol Case Rep 15:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Clemons KV, Capilla J, Sobel RA, Martinez M, Tong AJ, Stevens DA (2009) Comparative efficacies of lipid-Complexed amphotericin B and liposomal amphotericin B against Coccidioidal meningitis in rabbits. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1858–1862PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Mathisen G, Shelub A, Truong J, Wigen C (2010) Coccidioidal meningitis: clinical presentation and management in the fluconazole era. Medicine (Baltimore) 89:251–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Tariq VN, Devlin PL (1996) Sensitivity of fungi to Nikkomycin Z. Fungal Genet Biol 20:4–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Yadan JC, Gonneau M, Sarthou P, Le Goffic F (1984) Sensitivity to Nikkomycin Z in Candida Albicans: role of peptide permeases. J Bacteriol 160:884–888PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Shubitz LF, Trinh HT, Galgiani JN, Lewis ML, Fothergill AW, Wiederhold NP, Barker BM, Lewis ER, Doyle AL, Hoekstra WJ et al (2015) Evaluation of Vt-1161 for treatment of coccidioidomycosis in murine infection models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:7249–7254PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Clemons KV, Stevens DA (2011) Vaccines against coccidioidomycosis: past and current developments. J Inv Fungal Infect 5:11Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Cole GT, Hurtgen BJ, Hung CY (2012) Progress toward a human vaccine against coccidioidomycosis. Curr Fungal Infect Rep 6:235–244PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Cox RA, Vivas JR, Gross A, Lecara G, Miller E, Brummer E (1976) In vivo and in vitro cell-mediated responses in coccidioidomycosis. I. Immumologic responses of persons with primary, asymptomatic infections. Am Rev Respir Dis 114:937–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Galgiani JN, Yam P, Petz LD, Williams PL, Stevens DA (1980) Complement activation by Coccidioides Immitis: in vitro and clinical studies. Infect Immun 28:944–949PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Pappagianis D (1993) Evaluation of the protective efficacy of the killed Coccidioides Immitis spherule vaccine in humans. The valley fever vaccine study group. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:656–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Cole GT, Xue JM, Okeke CN, Tarcha EJ, Basrur V, Schaller RA, Herr RA, Yu JJ, Hung CY (2004) A vaccine against coccidioidomycosis is justified and attainable. Med Mycol 42:189–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Mcginnis MR, Smith MB, Hinson E (2006) Use of the Coccidioides Posadasii Deltachs5 strain for quality control in the Accuprobe culture identification test for Coccidioides Immitis. J Clin Microbiol 44:4250–4251PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Xue J, Hung CY, Yu JJ, Cole GT (2005) Immune response of vaccinated and non-vaccinated mice to Coccidioides Posadasii infection. Vaccine 23:3535–3544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Herr RA, Hung CY, Cole GT (2007) Evaluation of two homologous Proline-rich proteins of Coccidioides Posadasii as candidate vaccines against coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun 75:5777–5787PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Clemons KV, Antonysamy MA, Danielson ME, Michel KS, Martinez M, Chen V, Stevens DA (2015) Whole Glucan particles as a vaccine against systemic coccidioidomycosis. J Med Microbiol 64:1237–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Cole GT, Hung CY, Sanderson SD, Hurtgen BJ, Wuthrich M, Klein BS, Deepe GS, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM (2013) Novel strategies to enhance vaccine immunity against coccidioidomycosis. PLoS Pathog 9:E1003768PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pathogen GenomicsTranslational Genomics Research Institute (TGen-North)FlagstaffUSA
  2. 2.Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineValley Fever Center for Excellence, University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations