Advertisement

Dermatophytes and Dermatophytosis

  • Roberto ArenasEmail author
  • María del Rocío Reyes-Montes
  • Esperanza Duarte-Escalante
  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
  • Erick Martínez-Herrera
Chapter

Abstract

Dermatophytosis, are the most common fungal infection worldwide. Transmission is mostly by direct contact with infected animals, humans or contact with fomites. Clinical features vary according to the etiological agent. Dermatophytes belong to the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton (anamorphic state), and Arthroderma (teleomorphic state). The main etiological agents in humans are T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes complex, and M. canis, M. gypseum, and E. floccosum. Recent phylogenetic studies indicate the existence of a fourth genus, Chrysosporium. In this chapter we analyze epidemiology, biology, clinical forms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, detection methods and treatment. Also molecular taxonomy, molecular epidemiology, molecular techniques, molecular identification and treatment are widely analyzed.

References

  1. 1.
    Cafarchia C, Weigl S, Figueredo LA et al (2012) Molecular identification and phylogenesis of dermatophytes isolated from rabbit farms and rabbit farm workers. Vet Microbiol 154(3–4):395–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    White TC, Oliver BG, Gräser Y et al (2008) Generating and testing molecular hypotheses in the dermatophytes. Eukaryot Cell 7(8):1238–1245PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Degreef H (2008) Clinical forms of dermatophytosis (ringworm infection). Mycopathologia 166(5–6):257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Iorio R, Cafarchia C, Capelli G et al (2007) Dermatophytoses in cats and humans in central Italy: epidemiological aspects. Mycoses 50(6):491–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weitzman I, Summerbell RC (1995) The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol Rev 8(2):240–259PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kanbe T (2008) Molecular approaches in the diagnosis of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia 166(5–6):307–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cafarchia C, Romito D, Capelli G et al (2006) Isolation of Microsporum canis from the hair coat of pet dogs and cats belonging to owners diagnosed with M. canis tinea corporis. Vet Dermatol 17(5):327–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gräser Y, Scott J, Summerbell R (2008) The new species concept in dermatophytes-a polyphasic approach. Mycopathologia 166(5–6):239–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Squeo RF, Beer R, Silvers D et al (1998) Invasive Trichophyton rubrum resembling blastomycosis infection in the immunocompromised host. J Am Acad Dermatol 39:379–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Molina de Diego A (2011) Aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de las dermatofitosis. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 29(Supl 3):33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simpanya MF (2000) Dermatophytes: their taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity. In: Kushwaha RKS, Guarro J, editores. Biology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi. Rev Iberoam Micol Spain: Bilbao; 1–12Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cafarchia C, Iatta R, Latrofa MS et al (2013) Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny and evolution of dermatophytes. Infect Genet Evol 20:336–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garcia Garces H, Hrycyk MF, Giacobino J et al (2016) Molecular identification and phylogenetical analysis of dermatophyte fungi from Latin America. Mycoses. doi: 10.1111/myc.12532
  14. 14.
    Nweze EI, Eke I (2016) Dermatophytosis in Northern Africa. Mycoses 59(3):137–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seebacher C, Bouchara JP, Mignon B (2008) Updates on the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections. Mycopathologia 166(5–6):335–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Silveira-Gomes F, de Oliveira EF, Nepomuceno LB et al (2013) Dermatophytosis diagnosed at the Evandro Chagas Institute, Pará, Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 44(2):443–446PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Di Chiacchio N, Madeira CL, Humaire CR et al (2014) Superficial mycoses at the Hospital do servidor público municipal de São Paulo between 2005 and 2011. An Bras Dermatol 89(1):67–71PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    de Carvalho Ribeiro CS, Zaitz C, de Souza Framil VM et al (2015) Descriptive study of onychomycosis in a hospital in São Paulo. Braz J Microbiol 46(2):485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Díaz Jarabrán MC, Díaz González P, Espinoza Rodríguez J et al (2015) Evaluación del perfil de sensibilidad in vitro de aislamientos clínicos de Trichophyton mentagrophytes y Trichophyton rubrum en Santiago, Chile. Rev Iberoam Micol 32(2):83–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Heidrich D, Garcia MR, Stopiglia CD et al (2015) Dermatophytosis: a 16-year retrospective study in a metropolitan area in Southern Brazil. Infect Dev Ctries 9(8):865–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Budak A, Bogusz BZ, Tokarczyk M et al (2013) Dermatophytes isolated from superficial fungal infections in Krakow, Poland, between 1995 and 2010. Mycoses 56:422–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Farina C, Fazii P, Imberti G et al (2015) Trichophyton violaceum and T. soudanense: re-emerging pathogens in Italy, 2005-2013. New Microbiol 38:409–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Papini M, Bianca BM, Difonzo E et al (2015) Epidemiology of onychomycosis in Italy: prevalence data and risk factor identification. Mycoses 58(11):659–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Faure-Cognet O, Fricker-Hidalgo H, Pelloux H et al (2016) Superficial fungal infections in a french teaching hospital in Grenoble area: retrospective study on 5470 samples from 2001 to 2011. Mycopathologia 181(1–2):59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nasr A, Vyzantiadis TA, Patsatsi A et al (2016) Epidemiology of superficial mycoses in Northern Greece: a 4-year study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 30(5):837–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kechia FA, Kouoto EA, Nkoa T et al (2014) Epidemiology of tinea capitis among school-age children in Meiganga, Cameroon. J Mycol Med 24(2):129–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seck MC, Ndiaye D, Diongue K et al (2014) Mycological profile of onychomycosis in Dakar (Senegal). J Mycol Med 24(2):124–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ndiaye M, Diongue K, Seck MC et al (2015) Epidemiological profile of tinea capitis in Dakar (Senegal). A 6-year retrospective study (2008-2013). J Mycol Med 25(2):169–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ndunge Moto J, Muthini Maingi J, Kebira Nyamache A (2015) Prevalence of tinea capitis in school going children from Mathare, informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. BMC Res Notes 8:274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Coulibaly O, Kone AK, Niaré-Doumbo S et al (2016) Dermatophytosis among schoolchildren in three eco-climatic zones of Mali. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(4):e0004675PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    El Mezouari E, Hocar O, Atarguine H et al (2016) Tinea capitis in the military hospital Avicenna (Morocco): review of 8 years (2006-2013). J Mycol Med 26(1):e1–e5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Afshar P, Khodavaisy S, Kalhori S et al (2014) Onychomycosis in North-East of Iran. Iran J Microbiol 6(2):98–103PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Segal R, Shemer A, Hochberg M et al (2015) Onychomycosis in Israel: epidemiological aspects. Mycoses 58(3):133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Soltani M, Khosravi AR, Shokri H et al (2015) A study of onychomycosis in patients attending a dermatology center in Tehran, Iran. J Mycol Med 25(2):e81–e87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lakshmanan A, Ganeshkumar P, Mohan SR et al (2015) Epidemiological and clinical pattern of dermatomycoses in rural India. Indian J Med Microbiol 33(5):134–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cai W, Lu C, Li X et al (2016) Epidemiology of superficial fungal infections in Guangdong, Southern China: a retrospective study from 2004 to 2014. Mycopathologia 181(5):387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rezaei-Matehkolaei A, Rafiei A, Makimura K et al (2016) Epidemiological aspects of dermatophytosis in Khuzestan, Southwestern Iran, an update. Mycopathologia 181(7–8):547–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ali-Shtayeh MS, Yaish S, Jamous RM et al (2015) Updating the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections in Palestine with special reference to concomitant dermatophytosis. J Mycol Med 25(2):116–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Singh D, Patel DC, Rogers K et al (2003) Epidemiology of dermatophyte infection in Auckland, New Zealand. Australas J Dermatol 44(4):263–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    McPherson ME, Woodgyer AJ, Simpson K et al (2008) High prevalence of tinea capitis in newly arrived migrants at an English-language school, Melbourne, 2005. Med J Aust 189(19):13–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sigurgeirsson B, Baran R (2014) The prevalence of onychomycosis in the global population: a literature study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 28(11):1480–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ilkit M, Durdu M (2015) Tinea pedis: the etiology and global epidemiology of a common fungal infection. Crit Rev Microbiol 41(3):374–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    AL-Janabi AAHS (2014) Dermatophytosis: causes, clinic features, signs and treatment. J Symptoms Signs 3(3):200–203Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Diongue K, Diallo MA, Ndiaye M et al (2016a) Champignons agents de mycoses superficielles isolés à Dakar (Sénégal): une étude rétrospective de 2011 à 2015. J Mycol Med. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2016.08.0036
  45. 45.
    Feuilhade de Chauvin M (2000) Fungal and bacterial infection. Rev Prat 50(20):2223–2230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hainer BI (2003) Dermatophyte infections. Am Fam Physician 67(1):101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Arrazola Guerrero J, Isa Isa R, Torres Guerrero E et al (2015) Tiña de la cabeza: descripción de los hallazgos dermatoscópicos en 37 pacientes. Rev Iberoam Micol 32(4):242–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    del Boz-González J (2012) Tinea capitis: trends in Spain. Actas Dermosifiliogr 103(4):288–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Khosravi R, Shokri H, Vahedi G (2016) Factors in etiology and predisposition of adult tinea capitis and review of published literature. Mycopathologia 181(5–6):371–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lova-Navarro M, Gómez-Moyano E, Martínez Pilar L et al (2016) Tinea capitis in adults in Southern Spain. A 17-year epidemiological study. Rev Iberoam Micol 33(2):110–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zuluaga A, Cáceres DH, Arango K et al (2016) Epidemiología de la tinea capitis: 19 años de experiencia en un laboratorio clínico especializado en Colombia. Infectio 20(4):225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rebollo N, López-Barcenas AP, Arenas R (2008) Tiña de la cabeza. Actas Dermosifiliog 99(2):91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sarabi K, Khachemoune A (2007) Tinea capitis: a review. Dermatol Nursing 19(6):525–529Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Torres-Guerrero E, Matínez-Herrera E, Arroyo-Camarena S et al (2015) Kerion Celsi: a report of two cases due to Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton tonsurans. Our Dermatol Online 6(4):424–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fernandes S, Amaro C, Martins ML et al (2013) Kerion caused by Microsporum audouinii in a child. Med Mycol Case Rep 2:52–54PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bargman H (2000) Trichophyton rubrum tinea capitis in a 85-year-old woman. J Cutan Med Surg 4(3):153–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Moberg S (1984) Tinea capitis in the eldely. A report on two cases caused by Trichophyton tonsurans. Dermatologica 169(1):36–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Offidani A, Simoncini C, Arzeni D et al (1998) Tinea capitis due to Micosporum gypseum in an adult. Mycoses 41(5–6):239–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Anane S, Chtourou O (2013) Tinea capitis favosa misdiagnosed as tinea amiantacea. Med Mycol Case Rep 2:29–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hassan I, Rather PA, Sajad P (2013) Favus in an elderly female: a rare ocurrence. Indian J Dermatol 58(5):411PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vallarelli AFA (2014) Goya and tinea favosa. An Bras Dermatol 89(6):992–994PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sanusi T, Gong J, Wang X et al (2016) Disseminated favus caused by Microsporum gypseum in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Acta Derm Venereol 96(2):270–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Baran W, Szepietowski JC, Schawarts RA (2004) Tinea barbae. Acta Dermatoven APA 13(3):91–94Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bonifaz A, Ramírez-Tamayo T, Saúl A (2003) Tinea barbae (tinea sycosis): experience with nine cases. J Dermatol 30:898–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Trotha R, Gräser Y, Platt J et al (2003) Tinea barbae caused by a zoophilic strain of Trichophyton interdigitale. Mycoses 46(1–2):60–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Braun SA, Jahn K, Westermann A et al (2013) Tinea barbae profunda durch Arthroderma benhamiae. Hautarzt 64(10):720–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sabota J, Brodell R, Rutecki GW et al (1993) Severe tinea barbae due to Trichophyton verrucosum infection in dairy farmers. CID 23(6):1308–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sidwell RU, Chan I, Francis N et al (2014) Trichophyton erinacei kerion barbae from a hedgehog with direct osculatory transfer to another person. Clin Experim Dermatol 39(1):38–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Yin X, Du X, Zhang H (2011) A case of tinea barbae due to Trichophyton rubrum infection by autoinoculation from the infected fingernails. Mycoses 54(6):e864–e866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Diongue K, Ndiaye M, Diallo MA et al (2016b) Fungal interdigital tinea pedis in Dakar (Senegal). J Mycol Med. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2016.04.002
  71. 71.
    Kamishama T, Kmura T, Hosokawa JI et al (1997) Tinea pedis outbreak in swimming pools in Japan. Public Health 111:249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pérez-Bruzón M, Falcón-Lincheta L, Miranda-Gómez O et al (2015) Índice de severidad y afección en la tiña pedis. R Cubana Med Militar 44(2):161–169Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Porche DJ (2006) Tinea pedis: a common male foot problem. J Nurse Practitioners 2(3):152–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Canavan TN, Elewski BE (2015) Identifying signs of tinea pedis: a key to understanding clinical variable. J Drugs Dermatol 14(10):S42–S47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Metin A, Dilek N, Demirseven DD (2015) Fungal infections of the folds (intertriginous areas). Clin Dermatol 33(4):437–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Masri-Flidling GD (1996) Dermatophytosis of the feet. Dermatol Clin 14(1):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Davis JD (1995) Superficial fungal infections of the skin: tinea corporis, tinea pedis and Candida intertrigo. Infect Dis Update 2(5):157–161Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hawkins DM, Smidt AC (2014) Superficial fungal infection in children. Pediatr Clin 61:443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vander-Straten MR, Hossain MA, Ghannoum MA (2003) Cutaneous infections dermatophytosis, onychomycosis, and tinea versicolor. Infect Dis Clin 17(1):87–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zhan P, Geng C, Li Z et al (2013) The epidemiology of tinea mannum in Nanchang area, South China. Mycopathologia 176(1–2):83–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Drira I, Neji S, Hadrick I et al (2015) Tinea manuum due to Trichophyton erinacei from Tunisia. J Mycol Med 25:200–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jayaraman AG, Gray JP, Robinson-Bostom L (2003) Cutaneous conditions of the hands: part 1. J Am Societ Surg Hand 3(1):4–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rubio-Flores C, Martín-Díaz MA, Prats Caelles I et al (2004) Tinea manuum inflamatoria. An Pediatr (Barc) 61(4):344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bjekic M (2015) Two feet-one hand syndrome: a case report. Acta facultatis medicae Naissensis 32(3):215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Charles AJ (2009) Superficial cutaneous fungal infections in tropical countries. Dermatol Therapy 22:550–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Loo DS (2004) Cutaneous fungal infections in the elderly. Dermatol Clin 22(1):33–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Martin ES, Elewski BE (2002) Cutaneous fungal infections in the elderly. Geriatr Dermatol 18(1):59–75Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Otero L, Palacio V, Vásquez F (2001) Tinea cruris in female prostitutes. Mycopathologia 153(1):29–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Varade RS, Burkemper NM (2013) Cutaneous fungal infections in the Elderly. Clin Geriatr Med 29(2):461–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Naafs B, Padovese V (2009) Rural dermatology in the tropics. Clin Dermatol 27(3):252–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mason D, Marks M (2015) Images in clinical tropical medicina. Bakua: Tinea imbricata in the Solomon Islands. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92(5):883PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pihet M, Bourgeois H, Mazière JY et al (2008) Isolation of Trichophyton concentricum from chronic cutaneous lesions in patients from the Solomon Islands. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102(4):389–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bonifaz A, Archer-Dubon C, Saúl A (2004) Tropical medicine rounds. Tinea imbricata or Tokelau. Int J Dermatol 43:506–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Veraldi S, Giorgi R, Pontini P et al (2015a) Tinea imbricata in an italian child and review of the literature. Mycopathologia 180(5–6):353–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Veraldi S, Pontini P, Nazzaro G (2015b) A case of tinea imbricata in an italian woman. Acta Derm Venereol 95(2):235–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ran X, Zhuang K, Ran Y (2015) Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum. Med Mycol Cas Rep 9:31–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hubka V, Dobiâsova S, Dobiâs R et al (2014) Microsporum aenigmaticum sp. nov. from M. gypseum complex, isolated as a cause of tinea corporis. Med Mycol 52:387–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nenoff R, Overbeck C, UhrlaB S et al (2016) Tinea corporis due to the rare geophilic dermatophyte Microsporum praecox. Kasuistiken. doi: 10.1007/s00105-016-3867-2
  99. 99.
    Branscomb R (2005) The dermatophytoses. Lab Medicine 36(8):496–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cavanaugh RM, Greeson JD (1982) Trichophyton rubrum. Infection of the diaper area. Arch Dermatol 118(6):446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ortíz de Da Silva D, Flores de Lacarrubba L, Guzmán A (2005) Dermatofitosis infantiles en Asunción, Paraguay. Dermatología CMQ 3(1):22–26Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hayden GF (1985) Dermatophyte infection in the diaper area: report of two cases. Pediatr Infect Dis J 4(3):289–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Aghamiriam MR, Ghiasian SA (2009) A clinico-epidemiological study on tinea gladiatorum in Iranian wrestlers and contamination by dermatophytes. Mycoses 54:248–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Chen H-H, Chiu H-C (2002) Facial Majocchi’s granuloma caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in an immunocompetent patient. Acta Derm Venereol 83:65–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ilkit M, Durdu M, Karakas M (2012) Majocchi’s granuloma: a symptom complex caused by fungal pathogens. Med Mycol 50:449–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ríos-Reyes R, Rodríguez-Vázquez M, Comunión-Artieda A et al (2001) Foliculitis por Trichophyton rubrum (granuloma de Majocchi). Actas Dermosifiliogr 92:409–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nir-Paz R, Elinav H, Pierard GE et al (2003) Deep infection by Trichophyton rubrum in an immunocompromised patient. J Clin Microbiol 41(11):5298–5301PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bonifaz A, Tirado-Sánchez A, Ponce RM (2008) Granuloma de Majocchi. Gac Méd Méx 144(5):427–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tirado-González M, Ball E, Ruíz A et al (2012) Disseminated dermatophytic pseudomycetoma caused by Microsporum species. Int J Dermatol 51:1478–1482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hadida E, Schousboe A (1957) Generalized trichophytosis with subcutaneous and ganglionic localisation caused by Trichophyton faviforme. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 39:388–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Cheikhrouhou F, Makni F, Ayadi A (2010) La maladie dermatophytique: revue de la littérature. J Mycol Med 20:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Marill FG, Liautaud B, Hamra Krouha MS (1975) Evolution mortelle d’une maladie dermatophytique a Trichophyton schoenleinii. Clin Dermatol 68(5):450–456Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Aboutou CNE, Hali F, Chihab S (2016) Maladie dermatophytique de revelation tardive. Pan African Med J 24:194Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Martínez E, Ammen M, Tejada D et al (2014) Microsporum spp. onychomycosis: disease presentation, risk factors and treatment resonses in an urban population. Braz J Infect Dis 18(2):181–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Scher RK, Tavakkol A, Sigurgeirsson B et al (2007) Onychomycosis: diagnosis and definition of cure. J Am Acad Dermatol 56(6):939–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Martínez-Herrera EO, Arroyo-Camarena S, Tejada-García DL et al (2015) Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds. An Bras Dermatol 90(3):334–337PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hay RJ, Baran R (2011) Onychomycosis: a proposed revision of the clinical classification. J Am Acad Dermatol 65(6):1219–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Baran R, Hay RJ (2014) New clinical classification for onychomycoses. J Mycol Med 24(4):247–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Brasch J (2010) Pathogenesis of tinea. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 8(10):780–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Vermout S, Tabart J, Baldo A et al (2008) Pathogenesis of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia 166(5–6):267–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG, Gupta AK (2002) Dermatophytoma: recalcitrance to treatment because of existence of fungal biofilm. J Am Acad Dermatol 47(4):629–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Vila TV, Rozental S, de Sa Guimaraes CM (2015) A new model of in vitro fungal biofilms formed on human nail fragments allows reliable testing of laser and light therapies against onychomycosis. Lasers Med Sci 30(3):1031–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Martinez-Rossi NM, Peres NT, Rossi A (2016) Pathogenesis of dermatophytosis: sensing the host tissue. Mycopathologia. doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-0057-9
  124. 124.
    Grumbt M, Monod M, Yamada T et al (2013) Keratin degradation by dermatophytes relies on cysteine dioxygenase and a sulfite efflux pump. J Invest Dermatol 133(6):1550–1555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Brouta F, Descamps F, Monod M et al (2002) Secreted metalloprotease gene family of Microsporum canis. Infect Immun 70(10):5676–5683PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Leng W, Liu T, Wang J et al (2009) Expression dynamics of secreted protease genes in Trichophyton rubrum induced by key host's proteinaceous components. Med Mycol 47(7):759–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Baldo A, Tabart J, Vermout S et al (2008) Secreted subtilisins of Microsporum canis are involved in adherence of arthroconidia to feline corneocytes. J Med Microbiol 57(Pt9):1152–1156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    King RD, Khan HA, Foye JC et al (1975) Transferrin, iron, and dermatophytes. I. Serum dermatophyte inhibitory component definitively identified as unsaturated transferrin. J Lab Clin Med 86(2):204–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Achterman RR, White TC (2012) Dermatophyte virulence factors: identifying and analyzing genes that may contribute to chronic or acute skin infections. Int J Microbiol 2012:35830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Criado PR, Oliveira CB, Dantas KC et al (2011) Superficial mycosis and the immune response elements. An Bras Dermatol 86(4):726–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Guarner J, Brandt ME (2011) Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century. Clin Microbiol Rev 24(2):247–280PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Almeida SR (2008) Immunology of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia 166(5–6):277–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Grappel SF, Bishop CT, Blank F (1974) Immunology of dermatophytes and dermatophytosis. Bacteriol Rev 38(2):222–250PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Peres NT, Maranhão FC, Rossi A et al (2010) Dermatophytes: host-pathogen interaction and antifungal resistance. An Bras Dermatol 85(5):657–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Padhye AA, Young CN, Ajello L (1980) Hair perforation as a diagnostic criterion in the identification of Epidermophyton, Microsporon and Trichophyton species. PAHO Sci Publ 396:115–120Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Summerbell RC, Rosenthal SA, Kane J (1988) Rapid method for differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and related dermatophyte species. J Clin Microbiol 26(11):2279–2282PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Rezusta A, Rubio MC, Alejandre MC (1991) Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and by sorbitol assimilation. J Clin Microbiol 29(1):219–220PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rebell G, Taplin D (1978) Dermatophytes: their recognition and identification, revised edn. University of Miami Press, Coral GablesGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Symoens F, Willenz P, Rouma V et al (1989) Isoelectric focusing applied to taxonomic differentiation of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and the related Trichophyton interdigitale. Mycoses 32(12):652–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mochizuki T, Takada K, Watanabe S et al (1990) Taxonomy of Trichophyton interdigitale (Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale) by restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA. J Med Vet Mycol 28(3):191–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kawasaki M, Ishizaki H, Aoki M et al (1990) Phylogeny of Nannizzia incurvata, N. gypsea, N. fulva and N. otae by restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Mycopathologia 112(3):173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kawasaki M, Aoki M, Ishizaki H et al (1992) Phylogenetie relationships of the genera Arthroderma and Nannizzia inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mycopathologia 118:95–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Weitzman I, McGinnis MR, Padhye AA et al (1986) The genus Arthroderma and its synonym Nannizzia. Mycotaxon 25(2):505–518Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Nishio K, Kawasaki M, Ishizaki H (1992) Phylogeny of the genera Trichophyton using mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mycopathologia 117(3):127–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    de Bievre C, Dauguet C, Nguyen VH et al (1987) Polymorphism in mitocondrial DNA of several Trichphyton rubrum isolates from clinical specimens. Ann Insti Pasteur/Microbiol 138(6):719–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Harmsen D, Schwinn A, Weig M et al (1995) Phylogeny and dating of some pathogenic keratinophilic fungi using small subunit ribosomal RNA. J Med Vet Mycol 33(5):299–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Gräser Y, El Fari M, Presber W et al (1998) Identification of common dermatophytes (Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton) using polymerase chain reactions. Br J Dermatol 138(4):576–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Jackson CJ, Barton RC, Kelly SL et al (2000) Strain identification of Trichophyton rubrum by specific amplification of subrepeat elements in the ribosomal DNA nontranscribed spacer. J Clin Microbiol 38(12):4527–4534PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Makimura K, Tamura Y, Mochizuki T et al (1999) Phylogenetic classification and species identification of dermatophyte strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 regions. J Clin Microbiol 37(4):920–924PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Gräser Y, El Fari M, Vilgalys R et al (1999a) Phylogeny and taxonomy of the family Arthrodermataceae (dermatophytes) using sequence analysis of the ribosomal ITS region. Med Mycol 37(2):105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Gräser Y, Kuhnisch J, Presber W (1999b) Molecular markers reveal exclusively clonal reproduction in Trichophyton rubrum. J Clin Microbiol 37(11):3713–3717PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Summerbell RC, Haugland RA, Li A et al (1999) rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 sequences of asexual, anthropophilic dermatophytes related to Trichophyton rubrum. J Clin Microbiol 37(12):4005–4011PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gräser Y, Kuijpers AFA, El Fari M et al (2000) Molecular and conventional taxonomy of the Microsporum canis complex. Med Mycol 38(2):143–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hirai A, Kano R, Nakamura Y et al (2003) Molecular taxonomy of dermatophytes and related fungi by chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene sequences. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 83(1):11–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Nenoff P, Herrmann J, Gräser Y (2007) Trichophyton mentagrophytes sive interdigitale? A dermatophyte in the course of time. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 5(3):198–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Takashio M (1972) Is Arthroderma benhamiae the perfect state of Trichophyton mentagrophytes? Sabouraudia 10(2):122–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Anzawa K, Kawasaki M, Mochizuki T et al (2010) Successful mating of Trichophyton rubrum with Arthroderma simii. Med Mycol 48(4):629–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Symoens F, Jousson O, Planard C et al (2011) Molecular analysis and mating behaviour of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex. Int J Med Microbiol 301(3):260–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kawasaki M (2011) Verification of a taxonomy of dermatophytes based on mating results and phylogenetic analyses. Med Mycol J 52(4):291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Tartabinia ML, Boninoa GS, Raccab L et al (2013) Estudio taxonómico de aislamientos clínicos de Trichophyton en Rosario, Argentina. Rev Argent Microbiol 45(4):248–253Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ahmadi B, Mirhendi H, Makimura K et al (2016) Phylogenetic analysis of dermatophyte species using DNA sequence polymorphism in calmodulin gene. Med Mycol 54(5):500–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lymbery AJ, Thompson RCA (2012) The molecular epidemiology of parasite infections: tools and applications. Mol Biochem Parasitol 181(2):102–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kim JA, Kayoko T, Kazutaka F et al (1999) Identification and genetic homogeneity of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from several regions by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Mycopathologia 145:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Howell SA, Barnard RJ, Humphreyst F (1999) Application of molecular typing methods to dermatophyte species that cause skin and nail infections. J Med Microbiol 48(1):33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Gupta AK, Kohli Y, Summerbbell RC (2001) Variation in restriction fragment length polymorphisms among serial isolates from patient with Trichophyton rubrum infection. J Clin Microbiol 39(9):3260–3266PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Yazdanparast A, Jackson CJ, Barton RC et al (2003) Molecular strain typing of Trichophyton rubrum indicates multiple strain involvement in onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol 148(1):51–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Gaedigk A, Gaedigk R, Abdel-Rahman SM (2003) Genetic heterogeneity in the rRNA gene locus of Trichophyton tonsurans. J Clin Microbiol 41(12):5478–5487PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Yu J, Wan Z, Chen W et al (2004) Molecular typing study of the Microsporum canis strains isolated from an outbreak of tinea capitis in a school. Mycopathologia 157(1):37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Brilhante RSN, Rocha MFG, Cordeiro RA et al (2005) Phenotypical and molecular characterization of Microsporum canis in North-east Brazil. J Appl Microbiol 99(4):776–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Cano J, Rezusta A, Guarro J (2005) Inter-single-sequencerepeat-PCR typing as a new tool for identification of Microsporum canis strains. J Dermatol Sci 39(1):17–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Sugita T, Shiraki Y, Hiruma M (2006) Genotype analysis of the variable internal repeat region in the rRNA gene of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from Japanese Judo practitioners. Microbiol Immunol 50(1):57–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Baeza LC, Teruyuki-Matsumoto M, Fusco-Almeida AM et al (2006) Strain differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and analysis of rDNA nontranscribed space. J Med Microbiol 55(Pt 4):429–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gräser Y, Fröhlich J, Presber W et al (2007) Microsatellite markers reveal geographic population differentiation in Trichophyton rubrum. J Med Microbiol 56(Pt 8):1058–1065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Sharma R, Presber W, Rajak RC et al (2008) Molecular detection of Microsporum persicolor in soil suggesting widespread dispersal in central India. Med Micol 46(1):67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Cafarchia C, Otranto D, Weigl S et al (2009) Molecular characterization of selected dermatophytes and their identification by electrophoretic mutation scanning. Electrophoresis 30(20):3555–3564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Heidemann S, Monod M, Gräser Y (2010) Signature polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer region relevant for the differentiation of zoophilic and anthropophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale and other species of T. mentagrophytes sensu lato. Br J Dermatol 162(2):282–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Rezaei-Matehkolaei A, Mirhendi H, Makimura K et al (2014) Nucleotide sequence analysis of beta tubulin gene in a wide range of dermatophytes. Med Mycol 52(7):674–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Mirhendi H, Makimura K, de Hoog GS et al (2015) Translation elongation factor 1-α gene as a potential taxonomic and identification marker in dermatophytes. Med Mycol 53(3):215–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Ziółkowska G, Nowakiewicz A, Gnat S et al (2015) Molecular identification and classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains isolated from humans and selected animal species. Mycoses 58(3):119–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Robert R, Pihet M (2008) Conventional methods for the diagnosis of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia 166(5):295–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Brillowska-Da-browska A, Saunte DM, Cavling Arendrup M (2007) Five-hour diagnosis of dermatophyte nail infections with specific detection of Trichophyton rubrum. J Clin Microbiol 45(4):1200–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Sahoo AK, Mahajan R (2016) Management of tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis: a comprehensive review. Indian Dermatol Online J 7(2):77–86PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Karan A, Alikhan A, Feldman SR (2009) Microscopically differentiating dermatophytes from sock fibers. J Am Acad Dermatol 61(6):1024–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Pihet M, Clément N, Kauffmann-Lacroix C et al (2015) Diagnosis of dermatophytosis: an evaluation of direct examination using MycetColor® and MycetFluo®. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 83(2):170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Bonifaz A, Rios-Yuil JM, Arenas R et al (2013) Comparison of direct microscopy, culture and calcofluor white for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Rev Iberoam Micol 30(2):109–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Kozielewicz D, Wernik J, Mikucka A et al (2015) Problems in the diagnosis of profound trichophytosis barbae. Indian J Med Microbiol 33(3):444–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Rezusta A, de la Fuente S, Gilaberte Y et al (2016) Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures. Mycoses 59(7):416–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Ates A, Ozcan K, Ilkit M (2008) Diagnostic value of morphological, physiological and biochemical tests in distinguishing Trichophyton rubrum from Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex. Med Mycol 46(8):811–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Ergın Ç, İlkit M, Gök Y et al (2014) The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy. Mikrobiyol Bul 48(3):449–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Carballo GM, Ambasch G, Peralta NB et al (2002) Rojo neutro: nuestra experiencia de diagnóstico en micosis superficiales en cinco pacientes. Rev Chil Infect 19(4):267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Rich P, Elewski B, Scher RK et al (2013) Diagnosis, clinical implications, and complications of onychomycosis. Semin Cutan Med Surg 32(2 Suppl 1):S5–S8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Fernandes-Meireles TE, Gadelha-Rocha MF, Nogueira-Brilhante RS et al (2008) Successive mycological nail tests for onychomycosis: a strategy to improve diagnosis efficiency. Braz J Infect Dis 12(4):333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Nagar R, Nayak CS, Deshpande S et al (2012) Subungual hyperkeratosis nail biopsy: a better diagnostic tool for onychomycosis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 78(5):620–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Wilsmann-Theis D, Sareika F, Bieber T et al (2011) New reasons for histopathological nail-clipping examination in the diagnosis of onychomycosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 25(2):235–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Idriss MH, Khalil A, Elston D (2013) The diagnostic value of fungal fluorescence in onychomycosis. J Cutan Pathol 40(4):385–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Gianni C, Morelli V, Cerri A et al (2001) Usefulness of histological examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Dermatol 202(4):283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Guarro J (2012) Taxonomía y biología de los hongos causantes de infección en humanos. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 30(1):33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Arabatzis M, Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet LE, Kuijper EJ et al (2007) Diagnosis of common dermatophyte infections by a novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction detection/identification scheme. Br J Dermatol 157(4):681–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Dhib I, Fathallah A, Yaacoub A et al (2014) Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of common dermatophyte nail infections. Mycoses 57(1):19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ebihara M, Makimura K, Sato K et al (2009) Molecular detection of dermatophytes and nondermatophytes in onychomycosis by nested polymerase chain reaction based on 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Br J Dermatol 161(5):1038–1044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Gutzmer R, Mommert S, Küttler U et al (2004) Rapid identification and differentiation of fungal DNA in dermatological specimens by LightCycler PCR. J Med Microbiol 53(Pt 12):1207–1214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kanbe T, Suzuki Y, Kamiya A et al (2003) PCR-based identification of common dermatophyte species using primer sets specific for the DNA topoisomerase II genes. J Dermatol Sci 32(2):151–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Winter I, Uhrlaß S, Krüger C et al (2013) Molecular biological detection of dermatophytes in clinical samples when onychomycosis or tinea pedis is suspected. A prospective study comparing conventional dermatomycological diagnostics and polymerase chain reaction. Hautarzt 64(4):283–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kim JA, Takahashi Y, Tanaka R et al (2001) Identification and subtyping of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Mycoses 44(5):157–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ahmadi B, Mirhendi H, Shidfar MR et al (2015) A comparative study on morphological versus molecular identification of dermatophyte isolates. J Mycol Med 25(1):29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Bontems O, Hauser PM, Monod M (2009) Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte identification in onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol 161(4):791–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Elavarashi E, Kindo AJ, Kalyani J et al (2014) Application of PCR fingerprinting using (GACA)4 primer in the rapid discrimination of dermatophytes. Indian J Med Microbiol 32(3):236–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Miao Z, Li S, Li D et al (2014) Rapid detection for rabbit-derived dermatophytes using microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 24(1):53–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Mehlig L, Garve C, Ritschel A et al (2014) Clinical evaluation of a novel commercial multiplex-based PCR diagnostic test for differential diagnosis of dermatomycoses. Mycoses 57(1):27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Vahidnia A, Bekers W, Bliekendaal H et al (2015) High throughput multiplex-PCR for direct detection and diagnosis of dermatophyte species, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis in clinical specimen. J Microbiol Methods 113:38–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Nardoni S, Franceschi A, Mancianti F (2007) Identification of Microsporum canis from dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in paraffin-embedded veterinary specimens using a common PCR protocol. Mycoses 50(3):215–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Gupta AK, Zaman M, Singh J (2008) Diagnosis of Trichophyton rubrum from onychomycotic nail samples using polymerase chain reaction and calcofluor white microscopy. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(3):224–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Uchida T, Makimura K, Ishihara K et al (2009) Comparative study of direct polymerase chain reaction, microscopic examination and culture-based morphological methods for detection and identification of dermatophytes in nail and skin samples. J Dermatol 36(4):202–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Chandran NS, Pan JY, Pramono ZA et al (2013) Complementary role of a polymerase chain reaction test in the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Australas J Dermatol 54(2):105–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Luk NM, Hui M, Cheng TS et al (2012) Evaluation of PCR for the diagnosis of dermatophytes in nail specimens from patients with suspected onychomycosis. Clin Exp Dermatol 37(3):230–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Alexander CL, Shankland GS, Carman W et al (2011) Introduction of a dermatophyte polymerase chain reaction assay to the diagnostic mycology service in Scotland. Br J Dermatol 164(5):966–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Ohst T, Kupsch C, Gräser Y (2016) Detection of common dermatophytes in clinical specimens using a simple quantitative real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay. Br J Dermatol 174(3):602–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Paugam A, L'ollivier C, Viguié C et al (2013) Comparison of real-time PCR with conventional methods to detect dermatophytes in samples from patients with suspected dermatophytosis. J Microbiol Methods 95(2):218–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Nimura K, Niwano Y, Ishiduka S et al (2003) Actin gene-targeted RT-PCR could be a useful method for evaluating in vitro fungicidal activity against dermatophytes. J Int Med Res 31(5):407–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Iwanaga T, Anzawa K, Mochizuki T (2014) Quantification of dermatophyte viability for evaluation of antifungal effect by quantitative PCR. Mycopathologia 177(5–6):241–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Worek M, Kwiatkowska A, Ciesielska A et al (2014) Identification of dermatophyte species using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). J Microbiol Methods 100:32–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    L'Ollivier C, Cassagne C, Normand AC et al (2013) A MALDI-TOF MS procedure for clinical dermatophyte species identification in the routine laboratory. Med Mycol 51:713–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Bader O (2013) MALDI-TOF-MS-based species identification and typing approaches in medical mycology. Proteomics 13(5):788–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Karabıçak N, Karatuna O, İlkit M et al (2015) Evaluation of the Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system for the identification of clinically important dermatophyte species. Mycopathologia 180(3–4):165–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Nenoff P, Erhard M, Simon JC et al (2013) MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry - a rapid method for the identification of dermatophyte species. Med Mycol 51:17–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Sánchez MJ, Pico AM, Tejedor FM et al (2014) Using a polymerase chain reaction as a complementary test to improve the detection of dermatophyte fungus in nails. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 104(3):233–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Friedman D, Friedman PC, Gill M (2015) Reflectance confocal microscopy: an effective diagnostic tool for dermatophytic infections. Cutis 95(2):93–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Higashi Y, Miyoshi H, Takeda K et al (2012) Evaluation of a newly-developed immunochromatography strip test for diagnosing dermatophytosis. Int J Dermatol 51(4):406–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Tsunemi Y, Hiruma M (2016) Clinical study of dermatophyte test strip, an immunochromatographic method, to detect tinea unguium dermatophytes. J Dermatol. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.13348
  230. 230.
    Smijs TG, Jachtenberg JW, Pavel S et al (2014) Detection and differentiation of causative organisms of onychomycosis in an ex vivo nail model by means of Raman spectroscopy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 28(11):1492–1499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    White TJ, Bruns T, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. PCR Protocols: A Guid Methd Appl 18:315–322Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Drummond AJ, Ashton B, Heled J, et al (2006) Geneious v2.5. 2006. http://www.geneious.com
  233. 233.
    Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA et al (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucl Acids Res 25:3389–3402PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Posada D, Crandall KA (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14:817–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Goloboff PA, Farris JS, Nixon KC (2008) TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics 24:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinform App Not 17(8):754–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA 7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis. Version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33(7):1870–1874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Elewski B (2009) Tinea capitis: a current perspective. J Am Acad Dermatol 42(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Arenas R (2014) Micología Médica Ilustrada. McGraw-Hill, México, pp 67–98Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Domínguez-Cherit J, Teixeira F, Arenas R (1999) Combined surgical and systemic treatment of onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol 140(4):778–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Arenas R, Arce M, Leyva J (1999) Onicomicosis dermatofítica. Estudio abierto, comparativo y al azar entre pomada de bifonazol-urea combinada con un monopulso de itraconazol o terbinafina. Dermatol Rev Mex 43(4):149–156Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Guarro J, Gené J, Stchigel AM (1999) Developments in fungal taxonomy. Clin Microbiol Rev 12(3):454–500PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Gräser Y, Kuijpers AFA, Presber W et al (1999c) Molecular taxonomy of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans. Med Mycol 37(5):315–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Arenas
    • 1
    Email author
  • María del Rocío Reyes-Montes
    • 2
  • Esperanza Duarte-Escalante
    • 2
  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
    • 3
    • 4
  • Erick Martínez-Herrera
    • 4
  1. 1.Sección de MicologíaHospital General “Manuel Gea González”MéxicoMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)MéxicoMexico
  3. 3.División de InvestigaciónHospital Juárez de México, Edificio E. Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 5160MéxicoMexico
  4. 4.Dirección de InvestigaciónHospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de IxtapalucaIxtapalucaMexico

Personalised recommendations