Z Formal Specification Language

  • Gerard O’Regan
Part of the Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science book series (UTICS)


This chapter presents the Z specification language, which is one of the most widely used formal methods. Z is a formal specification language based on Zermelo set theory. It was developed at the Programming Research Group at Oxford University in the early 1980s. Z specifications are mathematical and employ a classical two-valued logic. The use of mathematics ensures precision and allows inconsistencies and gaps in the specification to be identified. Theorem provers may be employed to demonstrate that the software implementation meets its specification.


  1. 1.
    A. Diller, Z. An Introduction to Formal Methods (Wiley, England, 1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. O’ Regan, Guide to Discrete Mathematics (Springer, Switzerland, 2016b)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SQC ConsultingMallow, County CorkIreland

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