History and Impact of the International Peanut Genome Initiative: The Exciting Journey Toward Peanut Whole-Genome Sequencing

  • Hui Wang
  • Xiaohong Guo
  • Manish K. Pandey
  • Xiangyun Ji
  • Rajeev K. Varshney
  • Victor Nwosu
  • Baozhu GuoEmail author
Part of the Compendium of Plant Genomes book series (CPG)


Peanut is one of the major oilseed crops in the world and is a staple food crop for much of the world. It also faces many challenges in production and possesses many opportunities in advancing science. The U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) was launched in 2004, and brought to the international stage in 2006 to meet these challenges through coordination of international efforts in genome research beginning with molecular marker development and the improvement of genetic map resolution and coverage. The International Peanut Genome Initiative (IPGI) was the first committed step by the global peanut research community toward meeting these needs and challenges. Ultimately, a peanut genome sequencing project was initiated in 2010 by the Peanut Genome Consortium (PGC) and the genome sequences of two diploid peanut progenitors were published in 2016. During this time, IPGI and PGC have been guiding and leading demand-driven innovations in peanut genome research and translating the information into practical research and breeding. In this chapter, we review the background and history of IPGI and its achievement in developing improved genotypes using marker-assisted breeding. We also reviewed the development of peanut populations for high-resolution genetic and trait mapping, highlighting the transition to and preparation for next-generation, multi-parental genetic mapping populations from individual bi-parental populations.


Genomics Genetic markers Peanut genome consortium (PGC) Genome sequencing 



We would like to express our appreciation to the International Peanut Genome Initiative (IPGI) and Peanut Genome Consortium (PGC), U.S. Peanut Industries and the leadership of the Peanut Foundation and American Peanut Council, particularly to Howard Valentine for his efforts to make this IPGI and PGC and peanut genome sequencing project a reality. We also thank Dr. Howard Shapiro of Mars Inc. for initiating discussions with BGI and opening the way for collaborations with Chinese researchers. We are grateful for the financial support from USDA-ARS, the Peanut Foundation, the Georgia Peanut Commission and the U.S. National Peanut Board, Mars Inc., Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Tropical Legumes I, II & III), Department of Biotechnology (DBT) of Government of India, and World Bank Assisted Watershed Development Project II (KWDP-II) by Government of Karnataka, India; and genome collaborators from China (Henan Academy of Ag. Sci., Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Ag. Sci., and Hi-Tech Center of Shandong Academy of Ag. Sci.). The work reported in this article was undertaken as a part of the CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes. ICRISAT is a member of the CGIAR.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hui Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaohong Guo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Manish K. Pandey
    • 4
  • Xiangyun Ji
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Rajeev K. Varshney
    • 4
  • Victor Nwosu
    • 6
  • Baozhu Guo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.USDA-ARSTiftonUSA
  2. 2.University of GeorgiaTiftonUSA
  3. 3.Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural UniversityDaqingChina
  4. 4.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)HyderabadIndia
  5. 5.Ecological Environment Protection Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural SciencesShanghaiChina
  6. 6.Plant Science Program Research and DevelopmentMARS Chocolate North AmericaHackettstownUSA

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