Pathologies Responsible for the Development of the Neurogenic Bladder

  • Jacques Corcos
  • Mikolaj Przydacz


  • A wide variety of neurological conditions, lesions, diseases, or injuries of central and/or peripheral nervous system may affect bladder/sphincter innervation and result in clinical presentation of neurogenic bladder (NB). In presenting pathological entities that may lead to NB, special attention should be given for traumatic causes as patients after injuries of head and/or spinal cord represent different diagnostic and therapeutic group with specific symptom evolution.

  • Patients with suprapontine lesions usually present with neurogenic detrusor overactivity with the predominance of storage symptoms. Head injury, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, dementia, brain tumors, and cerebral palsy are the leading disorders in this group.

  • Infrapontine-suprasacral lesions may result in neurogenic detrusor overactivity and/or detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, thus either storage and/or voiding symptoms might be reported. These findings are distinctive for suprasacral spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, transvers myelitis, and spina bifida.

  • In sacral-infrasacral lesions, neurogenic detrusor underactivity is the most frequent finding. Patients are more inclined to report voiding symptoms than storage problems. This presentation typically characterizes sacral spinal cord injury and peripheral neuropathies.

  • Although the pattern of lower urinary tract dysfunction following neurological disease can often be predicted by the location, nature, and extent of the lesion, clinical presentation may significantly vary, thus requiring different therapeutic methods. Clinicians should be aware of these disparities to appropriately treat NB patients.


Suprapontine Infrapontine-suprasacral Sacral-infrasacral Head injury Spinal cord injury Stroke Parkinson’s disease Multiple system atrophy Dementia Alzheimer disease Brain tumors Cerebral palsy Multiple sclerosis Transverse myelitis Spina bifida Spinal shock Peripheral neuropathies Diabetes Iatrogenic injury Pelvic surgery Radiation therapy Abdominoperineal resection Rectal cancer Hysterectomy Prostatectomy 


  1. 1.
    Panicker JN, Fowler CJ, Kessler TM. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in the neurological patient: clinical assessment and management. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14(7):720–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carlsson CA. The supraspinal control of the urinary bladder. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1978;43(Suppl 2):8–12.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jeong SJ, Cho SY, Oh SJ. Spinal cord/brain injury and the neurogenic bladder. Urol Clin North Am. 2010;37(4):537–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Bladder management for adults with spinal cord injury: a clinical practice guideline for health-care providers. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(5):527–73.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tolonen A, Turkka J, Salonen O, Ahoniemi E, Alaranta H. Traumatic brain injury is under-diagnosed in patients with spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Med. 2007;39(8):622–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nguyen R, Fiest KM, McChesney J, Kwon CS, Jette N, Frolkis AD, et al. The international incidence of traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2016;43(6):774–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuroiwa Y, Tohgi H, Ono S, Itoh M. Frequency and urgency of micturition in hemiplegic patients: relationship to hemisphere laterality of lesions. J Neurol. 1987;234(2):100–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singhania P, Andankar MG, Pathak HR. Urodynamic evaluation of urinary disturbances following traumatic brain injury. Urol Int. 2010;84(1):89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giannantoni A, Silvestro D, Siracusano S, Azicnuda E, D'Ippolito M, Rigon J, et al. Urologic dysfunction and neurologic outcome in coma survivors after severe traumatic brain injury in the postacute and chronic phase. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(7):1134–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moiyadi AV, Devi BI, Nair KP. Urinary disturbances following traumatic brain injury: clinical and urodynamic evaluation. NeuroRehabilitation. 2007;22(2):93–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oostra K, Everaert K, Van Laere M. Urinary incontinence in brain injury. Brain Inj. 1996;10(6):459–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mochizuki H, Saito H. Mesial frontal lobe syndrome: correlations between neurological deficits and radiological localizations. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1990;161(Suppl):231–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wyndaele J. Urodynamics in comatose patients. Neurourol Urodyn. 1990;9:43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wyndaele JJ. Micturition in comatose patients. J Urol. 1986;135(6):1209–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chua K, Chuo A, Kong KH. Urinary incontinence after traumatic brain injury: incidence, outcomes and correlates. Brain Inj. 2003;17(6):469–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gajewski J. Spinal cord injury and cerebral trauma. In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 299–311.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krimchansky BZ, Sazbon L, Heller L, Kosteff H, Luttwak Z. Bladder tone in patients in post-traumatic vegetative state. Brain Inj. 1999;13(11):899–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leary SM, Liu C, Cheesman AL, Ritter A, Thompson S, Greenwood R. Incontinence after brain injury: prevalence, outcome and multidisciplinary management on a neurological rehabilitation unit. Clin Rehabil. 2006;20(12):1094–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cripps RA, Lee BB, Wing P, Weerts E, Mackay J, Brown D. A global map for traumatic spinal cord injury epidemiology: towards a living data repository for injury prevention. Spinal Cord. 2011;49(4):493–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krueger H, Noonan VK, Trenaman LM, Joshi P, Rivers CS. The economic burden of traumatic spinal cord injury in Canada. Chronic Dis Inj Can. 2013;33(3):113–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sahai A, Cortes E, Seth J, Khan MS, Panicker J, Kelleher C, et al. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with spinal cord injury: evaluation and management. Curr Urol Rep. 2011;12(6):404–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stover SL, DeVivo MJ, Go BK. History, implementation, and current status of the National Spinal Cord Injury Database. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(11):1365–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Facts and figures at a glance. 2/2013 [cited Jan 2017].
  24. 24.
    Hassouna M, Hassouna T, Elmayergi N, Abdelhady M. Pathophysiology of spinal shock. In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 145–51.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wein AJ. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in neurologic injury and disease. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, editors. Campbell-Walsh urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007. p. 2011e45.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Taweel WA, Seyam R. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients. Res Rep Urol. 2015;7:85–99.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rossier AB, Fam BA, Dibenedetto M, Sarkarati M. Urodynamics in spinal shock patients. J Urol. 1979;122(6):783–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hiersemenzel LP, Curt A, Dietz V. From spinal shock to spasticity: neuronal adaptations to a spinal cord injury. Neurology. 2000;54(8):1574–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wyndaele JJ. Investigation of the afferent nerves of the lower urinary tract in patients with ‘complete’ and ‘incomplete’ spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1991;29(7):490–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wyndaele JJ. The management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction after spinal cord injury. Nat Rev Urol. 2016;13(12):705–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goldmark E, Niver B, Ginsberg DA. Neurogenic bladder: from diagnosis to management. Curr Urol Rep. 2014;15(10):448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Abdel-Azim M, Sullivan M, Yalla SV. Disorders of bladder function in spinal cord disease. Neurol Clin. 1991;9(3):727–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Clarke SJ, Thomas DG. Characteristics of the urethral pressure profile in flaccid male paraplegics. Br J Urol. 1981;53(2):157–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McGuire EJ, Morrissey SG. The development of neurogenic vesical dysfunction after experimental spinal cord injury or sacral rhizotomy in non-human primates. J Urol. 1982;128(6):1390–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weld KJ, Dmochowski RR. Association of level of injury and bladder behavior in patients with post-traumatic spinal cord injury. Urology. 2000;55(4):490–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rapidi CA, Petropoulou K, Galata A, Fragkaki M, Kandylakis E, Venieri M, et al. Neuropathic bladder dysfunction in patients with motor complete and sensory incomplete spinal cord lesion. Spinal Cord. 2008;46(10):673–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Feigin VL, Krishnamurthi RV, Parmar P, Norrving B, Mensah GA, Bennett DA, et al. Update on the global burden of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in 1990-2013: the GBD 2013 study. Neuroepidemiology. 2015;45(3):161–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Osborn DJ, Reynolds WS, Dmochowski RR. Cerebrovascular accidents, intracranial tumors, and urologic consequences. In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 260–4.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tapia CI, Khalaf K, Berenson K, Globe D, Chancellor M, Carr LK. Health-related quality of life and economic impact of urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition: a systematic review. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2013;11:13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ruffion A, Castro-Diaz D, Patel H, Khalaf K, Onyenwenyi A, Globe D, et al. Systematic review of the epidemiology of urinary incontinence and detrusor overactivity among patients with neurogenic overactive bladder. Neuroepidemiology. 2013;41(3–4):146–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mehdi Z, Birns J, Bhalla A. Post-stroke urinary incontinence. Int J Clin Pract. 2013;67(11):1128–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brittain KR, Perry SI, Peet SM, Shaw C, Dallosso H, Assassa RP, et al. Prevalence and impact of urinary symptoms among community-dwelling stroke survivors. Stroke. 2000;31(4):886–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sakakibara R, Hattori T, Yasuda K, Yamanishi T. Micturitional disturbance after acute hemispheric stroke: analysis of the lesion site by CT and MRI. J Neurol Sci. 1996;137(1):47–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Williams MP, Srikanth V, Bird M, Thrift AG. Urinary symptoms and natural history of urinary continence after first-ever stroke—a longitudinal population-based study. Age Ageing. 2012;41(3):371–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wein A, Barrett DM. Etiologic possibilities for increased pelvic floor electromyography activity during cystometry. J Urol. 1982;127(5):949–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Borrie MJ, Campbell AJ, Caradoc-Davies TH, Spears GF. Urinary incontinence after stroke: a prospective study. Age Ageing. 1986;15(3):177–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Burney TL, Senapati M, Desai S, Choudhary ST, Badlani GH. Acute cerebrovascular accident and lower urinary tract dysfunction: a prospective correlation of the site of brain injury with urodynamic findings. J Urol. 1996;156(5):1748–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kong KH, Young S. Incidence and outcome of poststroke urinary retention: a prospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(11):1464–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Garrett VE, Scott JA, Costich J, Aubrey DL, Gross J. Bladder emptying assessment in stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1989;70(1):41–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kim TG, Chun MH, Chang MC, Yang S. Outcomes of drug-resistant urinary retention in patients in the early stage of stroke. Ann Rehabil Med. 2015;39(2):262–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Arunabh MB, Badlani GH. Urologic problems in cerebrovascular accidents. In: Paulson DF, editor. Problems in urology, vol. 7. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott; 1993. p. 41–53. No. 1.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Han KS, Heo SH, Lee SJ, Jeon SH, Yoo KH. Comparison of urodynamics between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients; can we suggest the category of urinary dysfunction in patients with cerebrovascular accident according to type of stroke? Neurourol Urodyn. 2010;29(3):387–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brittain KR, Peet SM, Castleden CM. Stroke and incontinence. Stroke. 1998;29(2):524–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thomas LH, Barrett J, Cross S, French B, Leathley M, Sutton C, et al. Prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence after stroke in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;3:CD004462.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pizzi A, Falsini C, Martini M, Rossetti MA, Verdesca S, Tosto A. Urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke: clinical and urodynamic studies. Neurourol Urodyn. 2014;33(4):420–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Patel M, Coshall C, Rudd AG, Wolfe CD. Natural history and effects on 2-year outcomes of urinary incontinence after stroke. Stroke. 2001;32(1):122–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Brocklehurst JC, Andrews K, Richards B, Laycock PJ. Incidence and correlates of incontinence in stroke patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985;33(8):540–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tsuchida S, Noto H, Yamaguchi O, Itoh M. Urodynamic studies on hemiplegic patients after cerebrovascular accident. Urology. 1983;21(3):315–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kalra L, Smith DH, Crome P. Stroke in patients aged over 75 years: outcome and predictors. Postgrad Med J. 1993;69(807):33–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rotar M, Blagus R, Jeromel M, Skrbec M, Trsinar B, Vodusek DB. Stroke patients who regain urinary continence in the first week after acute first-ever stroke have better prognosis than patients with persistent lower urinary tract dysfunction. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30(7):1315–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Williams DR, Litvan I. Parkinsonian syndromes. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2013;19(5 Movement Disorders):1189–212.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fowler CJ, Dalton C, Panicker JN. Review of neurologic diseases for the urologist. Urol Clin North Am. 2010;37(4):517–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pavlakis AJ, Siroky MB, Goldstein I, Krane RJ. Neurourologic findings in Parkinson’s disease. J Urol. 1983;129(1):80–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lees AJ, Hardy J, Revesz T. Parkinson’s disease. Lancet. 2009;373(9680):2055–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ogawa T, Seki S, Yoshimura N, et al. Pathologies of basal ganglia, such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases. In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 199–207.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Martinez-Martin P, Schapira AH, Stocchi F, Sethi K, Odin P, MacPhee G, et al. Prevalence of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease in an international setting; study using nonmotor symptoms questionnaire in 545 patients. Mov Disord. 2007;22(11):1623–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sakakibara R, Shinotoh H, Uchiyama T, Sakuma M, Kashiwado M, Yoshiyama M, et al. Questionnaire-based assessment of pelvic organ dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Auton Neurosci. 2001;92(1–2):76–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sakakibara R, Uchiyama T, Yamanishi T, Kishi M. Genitourinary dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25(1):2–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bonnet AM, Pichon J, Vidailhet M, Gouider-Khouja N, Robain G, Perrigot M, et al. Urinary disturbances in striatonigral degeneration and Parkinson’s disease: clinical and urodynamic aspects. Mov Disord. 1997;12(4):509–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Winge K, Skau AM, Stimpel H, Nielsen KK, Werdelin L. Prevalence of bladder dysfunction in Parkinsons disease. Neurourol Urodyn. 2006;25(2):116–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Staskin DS, Vardi Y, Siroky MB. Post-prostatectomy continence in the parkinsonian patient: the significance of poor voluntary sphincter control. J Urol. 1988;140(1):117–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Roth B, Studer UE, Fowler CJ, Kessler TM. Benign prostatic obstruction and Parkinson’s disease—should transurethral resection of the prostate be avoided? J Urol. 2009;181(5):2209–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Araki I, Kuno S. Assessment of voiding dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease by the international prostate symptom score. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;68(4):429–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stocchi F, Carbone A, Inghilleri M, Monge A, Ruggieri S, Berardelli A, et al. Urodynamic and neurophysiological evaluation in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;62(5):507–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ogawa T, Seki S, Masuda H, Igawa Y, Nishizawa O, Kuno S, et al. Dopaminergic mechanisms controlling urethral function in rats. Neurourol Urodyn. 2006;25(5):480–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sakakibara R, Yamamoto T, Uchiyama T, Tateno F. Urinary dysfunction in multiple system atrophy. In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 209–33.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gilman S, Wenning GK, Low PA, Brooks DJ, Mathias CJ, Trojanowski JQ, et al. Second consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. Neurology. 2008;71(9):670–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ogawa T, Sakakibara R, Kuno S, Ishizuka O, Kitta T, Yoshimura N. Prevalence and treatment of LUTS in patients with Parkinson disease or multiple system atrophy. Nat Rev Urol. 2017;14(2):79–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bjornsdottir A, Gudmundsson G, Blondal H, Olafsson E. Incidence and prevalence of multiple system atrophy: a nationwide study in Iceland. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84(2):136–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chrysostome V, Tison F, Yekhlef F, Sourgen C, Baldi I, Dartigues JF. Epidemiology of multiple system atrophy: a prevalence and pilot risk factor study in Aquitaine, France. Neuroepidemiology. 2004;23(4):201–8.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sakakibara R, Hattori T, Uchiyama T, Kita K, Asahina M, Suzuki A, et al. Urinary dysfunction and orthostatic hypotension in multiple system atrophy: which is the more common and earlier manifestation? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;68(1):65–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yamamoto T, Sakakibara R, Uchiyama T, Liu Z, Ito T, Awa Y, et al. Neurological diseases that cause detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractile function. Neurourol Urodyn. 2006;25(4):356–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sakakibara R, Hattori T, Uchiyama T, Yamanishi T. Videourodynamic and sphincter motor unit potential analyses in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71(5):600–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Blaivas JG, Sinha HP, Zayed AA, Labib KB. Detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia: a detailed electromyographic study. J Urol. 1981;125(4):545–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fiest KM, Jette N, Roberts JI, Maxwell CJ, Smith EE, Black SE, et al. The prevalence and incidence of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2016;43(Suppl 1):S3–S50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Braak H, Braak E. Diagnostic criteria for neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging. 1997;18(4 Suppl):S85–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sakakibara R. Dementia and lower urinary tract dysfunction. In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 179–99.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mori S, Kojima M, Sakai Y, Nakajima K. Bladder dysfunction in dementia patients showing urinary incontinence: evaluation with cystometry and treatment with propiverine hydrochloride. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 1999;36(7):489–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sugiyama T, Hashimoto K, Kiwamoto H, Ohnishi N, Esa A, Park YC, et al. Urinary incontinence in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). Int J Urol. 1994;1(4):337–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Resnick NM, Yalla SV. Detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractile function. An unrecognized but common cause of incontinence in elderly patients. JAMA. 1987;257(22):3076–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    de Robles P, Fiest KM, Frolkis AD, Pringsheim T, Atta C, St Germaine-Smith C, et al. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of primary brain tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuro Oncol. 2015;17(6):776–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sakakibara R. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with brain lesions. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;130:269–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Samijn B, Van Laecke E, Renson C, Hoebeke P, Plasschaert F, Vande Walle J, et al. Lower urinary tract symptoms and urodynamic findings in children and adults with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Neurourol Urodyn. 2017;36(3):541–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chiu PK, Yam KY, Lam TY, Cheng CH, Yu C, Li ML, et al. Does selective dorsal rhizotomy improve bladder function in children with cerebral palsy? Int Urol Nephrol. 2014;46(10):1929–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Delialioglu SU, Culha C, Tunc H, et al. Evaluation of lower urinary system symptoms and neurogenic bladder in children with cerebral palsy: relationships with the severity of cerebral palsy and mental status. Turk J Med Sci. 2009;39:571–8.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sadiq A, Brucker BM. Management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. Curr Urol Rep. 2015;16(7):44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rubin SM. Management of multiple sclerosis: an overview. Dis Mon. 2013;59(7):253–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Aharony S, Lam O, Lapierre Y, Corcos J. Multiple sclerosis (MS) for the urologist: what should urologists know about MS? Neurourol Urodyn. 2016;35(2):174–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Betts CD, D'Mellow MT, Fowler CJ. Urinary symptoms and the neurological features of bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993;56(3):245–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Phe V, Chartier-Kastler E, Panicker JN. Management of neurogenic bladder in patients with multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Urol. 2016;13(5):275–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mayo ME, Chetner MP. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Urology. 1992;39(1):67–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Murphy AM, Bethoux F, Stough D, Goldman HB. Prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women with multiple sclerosis. Int Neurourol J. 2012;16(2):86–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    de Seze M, Ruffion A, Denys P, Joseph PA, Perrouin-Verbe B, Genulf. The neurogenic bladder in multiple sclerosis: review of the literature and proposal of management guidelines. Mult Scler. 2007;13(7):915–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Panicker J, Haslam C. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in MS: management in the community. Br J Community Nurs. 2009;14(11):474. 476, 478–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mahajan ST, Patel PB, Marrie RA. Under treatment of overactive bladder symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis: an ancillary analysis of the NARCOMS Patient Registry. J Urol. 2010;183(4):1432–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Porru D, Campus G, Garau A, Sorgia M, Pau AC, Spinici G, et al. Urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: is there a relation with disease-related parameters? Spinal Cord. 1997;35(1):33–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ciancio SJ, Mutchnik SE, Rivera VM, Boone TB. Urodynamic pattern changes in multiple sclerosis. Urology. 2001;57(2):239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hanus T. Other diseases (transverse myelitis, tropical spastic paraparesis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Lyme’s disease). In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 260–4.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Krishnan C, Kaplin AI, Pardo CA, Kerr DA, Keswani SC. Demyelinating disorders: update on transverse myelitis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006;6(3):236–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Oliveira P, Castro NM, Muniz AL, Tanajura D, Brandao JC, Porto AF, et al. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in HTLV-1-infected patients and its association with overactive bladder. Urology. 2010;75(5):1100–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ganesan V, Borzyskowski M. Characteristics and course of urinary tract dysfunction after acute transverse myelitis in. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001;43(7):473–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sakakibara R, Hattori T, Yasuda K, Yamanishi T. Micturition disturbance in acute transverse myelitis. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(8):481–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gliga LA, Lavelle RS, Christie AL, Coskun B, Greenberg BM, Carmel ME, et al. Urodynamics findings in transverse myelitis patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: results from a tertiary referral urodynamic center. Neurourol Urodyn. 2015; doi:10.1002/nau.22930.
  114. 114.
    Mitchell LE, Adzick NS, Melchionne J, Pasquariello PS, Sutton LN, Whitehead AS. Spina bifida. Lancet. 2004;364(9448):1885–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kondo A, Kamihira O, Ozawa H. Neural tube defects: prevalence, etiology and prevention. Int J Urol. 2009;16(1):49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Leu PB, Diokno AC. Epidemiology of the neurogenic bladder. In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 75–89.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sawin KJ, Liu T, Ward E, Thibadeau J, Schechter MS, Soe MM, et al. The National Spina Bifida Patient Registry: profile of a large cohort of participants from the first 10 clinics. J Pediatr. 2015;166(2):444–50. e1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kessler TM, Lackner J, Kiss G, Rehder P, Madersbacher H. Predictive value of initial urodynamic pattern on urinary continence in patients with myelomeningocele. Neurourol Urodyn. 2006;25(4):361–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Veenboer PW, de Kort LM, Chrzan RJ, de Jong TP. Urinary considerations for adult patients with spinal dysraphism. Nat Rev Urol. 2015;12(6):331–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Siracusa G, Sparacino A, Lentini VL. Neurogenic bladder and disc disease: a brief review. Curr Med Res Opin. 2013;29(8):1025–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Jones DL, Moore T. The types of neuropathic bladder dysfunction associated with prolapsed lumbar intervertebral discs. Br J Urol. 1973;45(1):39–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Young MJ, Boulton AJ, MacLeod AF, Williams DR, Sonksen PH. A multicentre study of the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the United Kingdom hospital clinic population. Diabetologia. 1993;36(2):150–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Daneshgari F, Liu G, Birder L, Hanna-Mitchell AT, Chacko S. Diabetic bladder dysfunction: current translational knowledge. J Urol. 2009;182(6 Suppl):S18–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Frimodt-Moller C. Diabetic cystopathy: epidemiology and related disorders. Ann Intern Med. 1980;92(2 Pt 2):318–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Podnar S, Vodusek DB. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with peripheral nervous system lesions. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;130:203–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bansal R, Agarwal MM, Modi M, Mandal AK, Singh SK. Urodynamic profile of diabetic patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: association of diabetic cystopathy with autonomic and peripheral neuropathy. Urology. 2011;77(3):699–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kaplan SA, Te AE, Blaivas JG. Urodynamic findings in patients with diabetic cystopathy. J Urol. 1995;153(2):342–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hill SR, Fayyad AM, Jones GR. Diabetes mellitus and female lower urinary tract symptoms: a review. Neurourol Urodyn. 2008;27(5):362–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Yamaguchi C, Sakakibara R, Uchiyama T, Yamamoto T, Ito T, Liu Z, et al. Overactive bladder in diabetes: a peripheral or central mechanism? Neurourol Urodyn. 2007;26(6):807–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kershen RT, Boone TB. Peripheral neuropathies of the lower urinary tract following pelvic surgery and radiation therapy. In: Corcos J, Ginsberg D, Karsenty G, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 169–79.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Norris JP, Staskin DR. History, physical examination, and classification of neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am. 1996;23(3):337–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lange MM, van de Velde CJ. Urinary and sexual dysfunction after rectal cancer treatment. Nat Rev Urol. 2011;8(1):51–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lange MM, Maas CP, Marijnen CA, Wiggers T, Rutten HJ, Kranenbarg EK, et al. Urinary dysfunction after rectal cancer treatment is mainly caused by surgery. Br J Surg. 2008;95(8):1020–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Parys BT, Woolfenden KA, Parsons KF. Bladder dysfunction after simple hysterectomy: urodynamic and neurological evaluation. Eur Urol. 1990;17(2):129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Yalla SV, Andriole GL. Vesicourethral dysfunction following pelvic visceral ablative surgery. J Urol. 1984;132(3):503–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bruschini H, Simonetti R, Antunes AA, Srougi M. Urinary incontinence following surgery for BPH: the role of aging on the incidence of bladder dysfunction. Int Braz J Urol. 2011;37(3):380–6. Discussion 7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Porena M, Mearini E, Mearini L, Vianello A, Giannantoni A. Voiding dysfunction after radical retropubic prostatectomy: more than external urethral sphincter deficiency. Eur Urol. 2007;52(1):38–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kaul S, Savera A, Badani K, Fumo M, Bhandari A, Menon M. Functional outcomes and oncological efficacy of Vattikuti Institute prostatectomy with Veil of Aphrodite nerve-sparing: an analysis of 154 consecutive patients. BJU Int. 2006;97(3):467–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Keime-Guibert F, Napolitano M, Delattre JY. Neurological complications of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. J Neurol. 1998;245(11):695–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques Corcos
    • 1
  • Mikolaj Przydacz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyJewish General Hospital, McGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations