Objects of Suspicion: Keats, ‘To Autumn’ and the Psychology of Romantic Surveillance

  • Richard Marggraf TurleyEmail author
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Literature, Science and Medicine book series (PLSM)


Keats makes few explicit allusions to surveillance, but they are memorable, queasily attuned to asymmetries of power. Think of Porphyro’s unsuspected eye in the closet as Madeline disrobes in her bedchamber, or the ‘sly’ conspiring vision of Isabella’s brothers, or Lamia reconnoitering the nymph’s ‘secret bed’ before turning informant to Hermes.

Works Cited

  1. Allain, Pierre, et al., ‘Crowd Flow Characterization with Optimal Control Theory’, in Computer VisionACCV 2009: 9th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Part 2, eds. Hongbin Zha, et al. (Berlin, 2009).Google Scholar
  2. Allentuck, Marcia, ‘Haydon’s “Christ’s Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem”: An Unpublished Letter’, The Art Bulletin, 44 (1962).Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, Thomas, Observations on the Nature, Kinds, Causes and Prevention of Insanity (2 vols, Leicester, 1782).Google Scholar
  4. Bate, Walter Jackson, John Keats (Cambridge, MA, 1963).Google Scholar
  5. Bewick, William, Life and Letters of William Bewick, ed. Thomas Landseer (2 vols, London, 1871).Google Scholar
  6. Chandler, James, England in 1819: The Politics of Literary Culture and the Case of Romantic Historicism (Chicago, 1998).Google Scholar
  7. ———, Conciones ad Populum; or, Addresses to the People (Bristol, 1795).Google Scholar
  8. Cox, Joseph Mason, Practical Observations on Insanity (2nd edn, London, 1806).Google Scholar
  9. Darton’s New Plan Of The Cities Of London & Westminster, & Borough Of Southwark (London, 1817).Google Scholar
  10. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn, Arlington, VA, 2013).Google Scholar
  11. Dickens, Charles, Great Expectations, ed. Louis Crompton (New York, 1964).Google Scholar
  12. Dilke, Charles Wentworth, The Source and Remedy of the National Difficulties, Deduced from Principles of National Economy (London, 1821).Google Scholar
  13. Dolby, Thomas, The Triumphal Entry of Henry Hunt Esq. Into London (London, 1819).Google Scholar
  14. Fairclough, Mary, The Romantic Crowd: Sympathy, Controversy and Print Culture (Cambridge, 2013).Google Scholar
  15. The Farmer’s Calendar (1804).Google Scholar
  16. Ge, Weina, Robert T. Collins and R. Barry Ruback, ‘Vision-based Analysis of Small Groups in Pedestrian Crowds’, Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 34.5 (2012).Google Scholar
  17. Haggerty, Kevin D. and Richard V. Ericson, ‘The Surveillant Assemblage’, British Journal of Sociology, 51 (2000).Google Scholar
  18. Harrison, Mark, Crowds and History: Mass Phenomena in English Towns, 1790–1835 (Cambridge, 2002).Google Scholar
  19. Haslam, John, Illustrations of Madness (London, 1810).Google Scholar
  20. ———, Observations on Madness and Melancholy (2nd edn, London, 1809).Google Scholar
  21. ———, Sketches in Bedlam; or, Characteristics Traits of Insanity (London, 1823).Google Scholar
  22. Haydon, Benjamin Robert, Life of Benjamin Robert Haydon, Historical Painter, from his Autobiography and Journals, ed. Tom Taylor (2 vols, New York, 1853).Google Scholar
  23. ———, Neglected Genius: The Diaries of Benjamin Robert Haydon, 1808–1846, ed. John Joliffe (London, 1990).Google Scholar
  24. Hull, Gordon, Heather Richter Lipford and Celine Latulipe, ‘Contextual Gaps: Privacy Issues on Facebook’, Ethics and Information Technology, 13 (2011).Google Scholar
  25. ‘Hunt’s Arrival in London’, Royal Cornwall Gazette, Falmouth Packet & Plymouth Journal, 847 (18 September 1819). James, Charles, A New and Enlarged Military Dictionary (4th edn, London, 1816).Google Scholar
  26. Johnstone’s London Commercial Guide, and Street Directory (London, 1818).Google Scholar
  27. ———, The Letters of John Keats 1814–1821, ed. Hyder Edward Rollins (2 vols, Cambridge, MA, 1958 rpt. 1972).Google Scholar
  28. ———, The Poems of John Keats, ed. Jack Stillinger (London, 1978).Google Scholar
  29. Knox, Vicesimus, The Spirit of Despotism, ed. William Hone (7th edn, 1795; London, 1821).Google Scholar
  30. Koskela, Hille, ‘“Cam Era”: The Contemporary Urban Panopticon’, Surveillance & Society, 1 (2003), at
  31. Leibe, B., K. Schindler, N. Cornelis and L. Van Gool, ‘Coupled Object Detection and Tracking from Static Cameras and Moving Vehicles’, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 30 (2008).Google Scholar
  32. Lyon, David, Surveillance After September 11 (Cambridge, 2003).Google Scholar
  33. McQuade, Brendan I., ‘Police and the Post-9/11 Surveillance Surge: “Technological Dramas” in “the Bureaucratic Field”’, Surveillance and Society, 14 (2016).Google Scholar
  34. Marggraf Turley, Richard, Jayne Elisabeth Archer and Howard Thomas, ‘Keats, “To Autumn”, and the New Men of Winchester’, Review of English Studies, 63 (2012).Google Scholar
  35. Mazzon, Riccardo, et al., ‘Detection and Tracking of Groups in Crowd’, 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (27–30 August 2013).Google Scholar
  36. Negishi, Kaima, ‘From Surveillant Text to Surveilling Device: The Face in Urban Transit Spaces’, Surveillance and Society, 11.3 (2013), at
  37. Paglen, Trevor, ‘Interview’, Center for the Study of the Drone, at
  38. The Parliamentary Debates for the Year 1803 to the Present Time, 34 (London, 1816).Google Scholar
  39. The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time, 37 (London, 1818).Google Scholar
  40. Penney, Jonathon W., ‘Chilling Effects: Online Surveillance and Wikipedia Use’, Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 31 (2016).Google Scholar
  41. Plumly, Stanley, The Immortal Evening: A Legendary Dinner with Keats, Wordsworth, and Lamb (New York, 2014).Google Scholar
  42. Roe, Nicholas, John Keats: A New Life (New Haven and London, 2012).Google Scholar
  43. The Trial of Henry Hunt (London, 1820).Google Scholar
  44. Vancouver, Charles, General View of the Agriculture of Hampshire (London, 1813).Google Scholar
  45. Watkins, Daniel P., Keats’s Poetry and the Politics of the Imagination (London, 1989).Google Scholar
  46. Die wichtigsten Lebensmomente Karl Ludwig Sand’s aus Wunsiedel (2nd edn, 2 vols, Nuremberg, 1819).Google Scholar
  47. Wikipedia Contributors, ‘Global Language Monitor’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 21 February 2017, 14:58 UTC, at [accessed 22 March 2017].
  48. Wright, David and Reinhard Kreissl (eds.), Surveillance in Europe (London, 2014).Google Scholar
  49. Zhou, Bolei, et al., ‘Learning Collective Crowd Behaviors with Dynamic Pedestrian-Agents’, International Journal of Computer Vision, 111 (2015).Google Scholar

Nineteenth-Century Journals and Newspapers

  1. The Black Dwarf. Google Scholar
  2. The Cap of Liberty. Google Scholar
  3. Edinburgh Magazine. Google Scholar
  4. The Examiner. Google Scholar
  5. Falmouth Packet & Plymouth Journal. Google Scholar
  6. Literary Gazette. Google Scholar
  7. Monthly Magazine. Google Scholar
  8. Monthly Review. Google Scholar
  9. The Morning Chronicle. Google Scholar
  10. The Morning Post. Google Scholar
  11. Royal Cornwall Gazette. Google Scholar
  12. Trewman’s Exeter Flying Post; or, Plymouth and Cornish Advertizer. Google Scholar
  13. York Herald, and General Advertiser. Google Scholar


  1. A Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Physical Society, Guy’s Hospital (1850), 19. King’s College London, at

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aberystwyth UniversityWalesUK

Personalised recommendations