Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction Evidences from Scaled 1-g model

  • M. G. DuranteEmail author
  • L. Di Sarno
  • George Mylonakis
  • Colin A. Taylor
  • A. L. Simonelli
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


The seismic soil-pile-structure interaction (SPSI) is a complex mechanism that is usually considered formed by the combination of kinematic and inertial interaction. Both mechanisms generate additional forces on the system related to the stiffness contrast between the soil and the foundation for the kinematic interaction and to the soil response around the foundation due to the inertial contribution of the superstructure for the so-called inertial interaction. While the mechanism of each of these contributions is clear, their combination is still under investigation due to number of parameters involved (i.e. dynamic characteristics of both system and input). An effective way to study this combination is the analysis of actual data on real structures. Due to the fact that these data are hard to find, usually the response of physical scaled models on 1-g and n-g devices are investigated. In this connection, this paper presents some results from an extensive 1-g shaking table testing activity. The scaled physical model is formed by a group of five piles embedded in a by-layer deposit of dry sands with an oscillator connected to the piles through different kind of foundation systems. More specifically, the attention is focused on both pile and structural response when the oscillator is connected to a small group of three piles by means of a stiff foundation. The analysis of the experimental data enhances the role of the resonance between the soil-structure system and the input waves in the general behavior of both structure and piles.



The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement no. 227887, SERIES.

The financial support provided by the ReLUIS (TaskMT2) project funded by the Italian Civil Protection (Agreement No. AQDPC/ReLUIS 2014–2018) is also appreciated.

The authors would like to acknowledge all the contributors to the SERIES TA4 project, namely: Dr. Matthew Dietz and Dr. Luiza Dihoru from University of Bristol, Prof Subhamoy Bhattacharya from University of Surrey (formerly at University of Bristol), Dr Stefania Sica from University of Sannio, Prof. Gianni Dente, Dr. Roberto Cairo and Dr. Andrea Chidichimo from University of Calabria, Prof. Arezou Modaressi and Dr. Luìs A. Todo Bom from Ecole Centrale Paris, Prof. Amir M. Kaynia from Norwegian University of Science and Technology and Dr. George Anoyatis from University of the West of England (formerly at University of Patras).


  1. Kausel, E.: Early history of soil–structure interaction. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 30(9), 822–832 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2009.11.001. Special Issue in honour of Prof. Anestis VeletsosCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Jennings, P.C., Bielak, J.: Dynamics of building-soil interaction. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 63(1), 9–48 (1973)Google Scholar
  3. Veletsos, A.S., Meek, J.W.: Dynamic behavior of building-foundation systems. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 3(2), 121–138 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bielak, J.: Dynamic behaviour of structures with embedded foundations. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 3(3), 259–274 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Roesset, J.M.: A review of soil-structure interaction. In: Johnson, J.J. (ed.) Soil-Structure Interaction: The Status of Current Analysis Methods and Research, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Report No. NUREG/CR-1780 and UCRL-53011 (1980)Google Scholar
  6. Luco, E.: Linear soil-structure interaction: a review. In: Earthquake Ground Motions and Effects on Structures, ASME. AMD, vol. 53, pp. 41–57 (1982)Google Scholar
  7. Wolf, J.P.: Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction. Prentice hall Inc., New York (1985)Google Scholar
  8. Gazetas, G., Mylonakis, G.: Seismic soil-structure interaction: new evidence and emerging issues. In: Dakoulas, P., Yegian, M.K., Holtz, R.D. (eds.) Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics III, ASCE, vol. II, pp. 1119–1174 (1998)Google Scholar
  9. Stewart, J.P., Fenves, G.L.: System identification for evaluating soil-structure interaction effects in buildings from strong motion recordings. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 27(8), 869–885 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Stewart, J.P., Fenves, G.L., Seed, R.B.: Seismic soil-structure interaction in buildings. I: analytical methods. J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng. 125(1), 26–37 (1999a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Stewart, J.P., Seed, R.B., Fenves, G.L.: Seismic soil-structure interaction in buildings. II: empirical findings. J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng. 125(1), 38–48 (1999b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mylonakis, G., Gazetas, G.: Seismic soil-structure interaction: beneficial or detrimental? J. Earthq. Eng. 4(3), 277–301 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. Meymand, P.J.: Shaking table scale model tests of nonlinear soil-pile-superstructure interaction in soft clay. Ph.D thesis, University of California, Berkeley (1998)Google Scholar
  14. Muir Wood, D., Crewe, A., Taylor, C.A.: Shaking table testing of geotechnical models. UPMG- Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech. 2, 01–13 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pitilakis, D., Dietz, M., Wood, D.M., Clouteau, D., Modaressi, A.: Numerical simulation of dynamic soil–structure interaction in shaking table testing. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 28, 453–467 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Moccia, F.: Seismic soil pile interaction: experimental evidence. Ph.D thesis, Universita’ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (2009)Google Scholar
  17. Chidichimo, A.: Experimental and analytical investigation on soil-pile-structure interaction. Ph.D thesis, Università Mediterranea Reggio Calabria (2014)Google Scholar
  18. Durante, M.G.: Experimental and numerical assessment of dynamic soil–pile–structure interaction. Ph.D thesis, Universita’ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (2015)Google Scholar
  19. Durante, M.G., Di Sarno, L., Taylor, C.A., Mylonakis, G., Simonelli, A.L.: Soil–pile–structure interaction: experimental outcomes from shaking table tests. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 45(7), 1041–1061 (2016). doi: 10.1002/eqe.2694 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crewe, A.J., Lings. M.L., Taylor, C.A., Yeung, A.K., Andrighetto, R.: Development of a large flexible shear stack for testing dry sand and simple direct foundations on a shaking table. In: Elnashai, A.S. (ed.) European Seismic Design Practice. Balkema, Rotterdam (1995)Google Scholar
  21. Scasserra, G., Lanzo, G., Stewart, J.P., D’Elia, B.: SISMA (Site of Italian Strong-Motion Accelerograms): a web-database of ground motion recordings for engineering applications. In: Seismic Engineering International Conference Commemorating the 1908 Messina and Reggio Calabria Earthquake, Reggio Calabria, AIP, Melville, NY, vol. 2, pp. 1649–1656 (2008).
  22. Durante, M.G., Karamitros, D., Di Sarno, L., Sica, S., Taylor, C.A., Mylonakis, G., Simonelli, A.L.: Characterisation of shear wave velocity profiles of non-uniform bi-layer soil deposits: analytical evaluation and experimental validation. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 75, 44–54 (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2015.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Durante
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Di Sarno
    • 2
  • George Mylonakis
    • 3
  • Colin A. Taylor
    • 3
  • A. L. Simonelli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of EngineeringUniversità degli Studi del SannioBeneventoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations