Reproductive Biology and Eco-physiology of Farmed Kappaphycus and Eucheuma

  • Rhodora V. Azanza
  • Erick Ask
Part of the Developments in Applied Phycology book series (DAPH, volume 9)


The impetus to enhance the quality and quantity of industrial-scale supplies of raw material and extract production drives the needs for research and monitoring of the reproductive biology and physiology of commercial species/strains/variants of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. Publications and advancements in these fields are reviewed in this chapter. These seaweeds have now become true marine, agronomic crops which have been farmed for several decades principally through cuttings or vegetative reproduction. The scale and importance of this industry requires that further studies are needed imminently in relation to the changing environments within which varied methods of cultivation are practiced. Research on the potential acclimation of various seedstocks when exposed to a varied range of culture practices and changing ecological conditions, including Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA), are required to be implemented more vigorously in order to assess sustainability. Descriptive and predictive modeling using available data from biological and physio-ecological experiments together with additional studies required are highlighted here, to serve as inputs to the collective goal of successful and sustained cultivation of these carrageenophytes.


Kappaphycus Eucheuma Vegetative Reproduction Physiology Life cycle Sporulation farming 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Marine Science InstituteUniversity of the PhilippinesQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.FMC Bio PolymerPhiladelphiaUSA

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