The Pied Piper is a peculiarly German construct, but with the English retelling of the story by Robert Browning, the figure is transported to a kind of metaphorical crossroads between Germany, Romania and England. This essay explores the effects of this shift and the significance of Transylvania as the supposed destination of the children. It draws some parallels with the Dracula myth, which was transported to Germany from the Britain and Romania of the novel via the film Nosferatu. An historicist method is employed, which is illuminating with regard to national identity and otherness, but this is shown to be increasingly problematised with every retelling. In the final phase of the argument this approach is supplanted by a desire to redeem the utopian, magical force of the fairy tale in the present.
- The pied piper
- Robert browning
- Historicist method
- National identity
- Fairy tale
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Abbott, Stacey. Celluloid Vampires. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2007.
Adamson, Mary Troxclair. ‘The Legend of the Pied Piper in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Grimm, Browning, and Skurzynski’. The Looking Glass: New Perspectives on Children’s Literature 17:1 (2013). http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/ojs/index.php/tlg/article/view/390/383.
Arata, Stephen D. ‘The Occidental Tourist: Dracula and the Anxiety of Reverse Colonization’. In Bram Stoker, Dracula, ed. Nina Auerbach and David J. Skal, 462–70. New York and London: Norton, 1997.
Baumel-Schwartz, Judith Tydor. Never Look Back: Jewish Refugee Children in Great Britain, 1938–45. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2012.
Bates, Jean Victor. Our Allies and Enemies in the Near East. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., n. d.
Boner, Charles. Transylvania: Its Product and Its People. London: Longman, 1865.
Bowlly, Albert Allick ‘Al’. ‘Al Bowlly—Pied Piper Of Hamelin 1931 Ray Noble’. YouTube. Accessed October 1, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7xG5zWQicI.
Browning, Robert. ‘The Pied Piper of Hamelin’. In Robert Browning’s Poetry, ed. James F. Louks and Andrew M. Stauffer, 103–110. W. W. Norton: New York and London, 2007.
Butler, Erik. Metamorphoses of the Vampire in Literature and Film. Suffolk: Camden House, 2010.
Carter, Angela. The Virago Book of Fairy Tales. London: Virago, 1990.
Carter, Margaret L. ‘The Vampire as Alien in Contemporary Fiction’. In Blood Read: The Vampire as Metaphor in Contemporary Culture, ed. Joan Gordon and Veronica Hollinger. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997, 27–44.
Catherwood, Andrea. ‘Ron Moody’. Last Word, June 14, 2015. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05xqbmj.
Craft, Christopher. ‘Kiss Me with Those Red Lips: Gender and Inversion in Bram Stoker’s Dracula’. Representations 5 (1984), 107–33.
Crosse, Andrew F. Round About the Carpathians. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood, 1878.
Crick, Joyce, ed. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Selected Tales. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Crişan, Marius Mircea. The Birth of The Dracula Myth: Bram Stoker’s Transylvania. Bucharest: Pro Universitaria, 2013.
Currie, Mark. Difference. London and New York: Routledge, 2004.
Durham, M. Edith. The Burden of the Balkans. London: Edward Arnold, 1905.
Ellis, John. One Fairy Story Too Many: The Brothers Grimm and Their Tales. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1983.
Elder, Abraham. Tales and Legends of the Isle of Wight (London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1839).
Florescu, Radu. In Search of the Pied Piper. London: Athena Press, 2005.
———. In Search of Dracula. Twickenham: Athena Press, 2005.
Frayling, Sir Christopher. Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula. New edn. London: Faber, 1991.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider. New York: Norton, 2001.
Gerard, Emily. ‘Transylvanian Superstitions’. The Nineteenth Century, July, 1885, 128–44.
———. The Land Beyond the Forest. 2 vols. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1888.
Grimm, Jacob, and Wilhelm Grimm. ‘Die Kinder zu Hameln’. In Deutsche Sagen. Herausgegeben von den Brüdern Grimm. Berlin: In der Nicolaischen Buchhandlung, 1816, no. 244, 330–33.
———. The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm: The Complete First Edition. Trans. and ed. Jack Zipes. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.
———. ‘The Children of Hameln’, In The Pied Piper of Hameln and related legends from other towns. Trans. and ed. D. L. Ashliman. Accessed June 1, 2015. http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/hameln.html.
Gibson, Matthew. ‘Bram Stoker and the Treaty of Berlin’. Gothic Studies 6:2 (2004): 236–51.
Glover, David. Vampires, Mummies and Liberals: Bram Stoker and the Politics of Popular Fiction. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 1996.
Gutch, Eliza. ‘The Pied Piper of Hamelin’, Folklore 3:2 (June 1892): 227–52.
Halberstam, Judith. Gothic Horror and the Technology of Monsters. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 1995.
Harty, Sheila. ‘Pied Piper Revisited’. In Education and the Market Place, ed. David Bridges and Terence H. McLaughlin. London: Routledge, 1994.
Hughes, William. ‘Mythical Space and the Mythicized Author: Bram Stoker as Fictional Protagonist in Modern Fiction’. Paper presented at Beliefs and Behaviours in Education and Culture Conference, University of Timisoara, Romania, June 25–27, 2015.
Jackson, Kevin. Bite: A Vampire Handbook. Portobello: London, 2009.
Jacobs, Joseph. More English Fairy Tales . Milton Keynes: Pook Press, 2010.
Jameson, Fredric. ‘Conclusion: The Dialectic of Utopia and Ideology’. In The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act. London: Routledge, 1989, 281–99.
Johnson, E. C. On the Track of the Crescent: Erratic Notes from the Piraeus to Pesth. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1885.
Luckhurst, Roger. ‘Why Bother Reading Bram Stoker’s Dracula’. OUPBlog. April 22, 2015. Accessed October 17, 2015. http://blog.oup.com/2015/04/reading-bram-stoker-dracula/.
Mieder, Wolfgang. The Pied Piper: A Handbook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007.
Miller, Elizabeth, and Robert Eighteen-Bisang. Bram Stoker’s Notes for Dracula. McFarland: Jefferson, NC, 2008.
Nevil Shute Norway Foundation, The. Accessed October 1, 2015. http://www.nevilshute.org/index.php.
Noyes, James O. Roumania. New York: Rudd & Carlton, 1857.
Paget, John. Hungary and Transylvania. London: Murray, 1855.
Pied Piper: A Silly Symphony. Directed by Wilfred Jackson. 1933. The Internet Animation Database. Accessed October 1, 2015. http://www.intanibase.com/shorts.aspx?shortid=193#page=general_info.
Queenan, Bernard. ‘The Evolution of the Pied Piper’. Children’s Literature 7 (1978): 104–14.
Deutsche Mythology [German Mythology] (1835), Tales, 2 vols (1837).
Riley, Bronwen. Transylvania. London: Frances Lincoln, 2007.
Rölleke, Heinz. Die älteste Märchensammlung der Brǖder Grimm. Cologne-Geneva: Martin Bodmer Foundation, 1975.
Sanders, Julie. Adaptation and Appropriation. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.
Skal, David J. Hollywood Gothic. Faber and Faber: New York, 1990.
Stoker, Bram. Dracula, ed. Roger Luckhurst. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Summers, Julie. When the Children Came Home: Stories of Wartime Evacuees. London: Simon & Schuster, 2011.
Tatar, Maria. Preface to The Hard Facts of Grimm’s Fairy Tales. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1987, xx.
Ueding, Gert, ed. Literature ist Utopie. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1978.
Verstegan, Richard. A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence: in Antiquities. Concerning the most noble, and renowned English nation. By the study and travell of R.V. (London: John Norton, for Joyce Norton and Richard Whitaker, St Paul’s Church-yard, 1643).
Wallace, Christopher. The Pied Piper’s Poison. Woodstock and New York: Overlook Press, 1999.
Wanley, Nathaniel. The Wonders of the Little World: or A General History of Man. London: C. Taylor, Holborn & T. Thornton, 1678.
Wilkening, Christoph. ‘The Pied Piper of Hamelin: Germany’s Mystery of Missing Children’. The World and I 15 (2000): 178–87.
Wilkinson, William. An Account of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, Including Various Political Observations Relating to Them. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1820.
Wilson, Katharina M. ‘The History of the Word Vampire’. In Alan Dundes, The Vampire: A Casebook. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998, 3–12.
Zipes, Jack. The Utopian Function of Art and Literature: Selected Essays, by Ernst Bloch, trans. Jack Zipes and Frank Mecklenburg. Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press, 1989.
———. ‘Breaking the Disney Spell’. In The Classic Fairy Tales, ed. Maria Tatar. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1999, 332–44.
———. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to Modern World. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2002.
———. Introduction to The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm: The Complete First Edition, trans. and ed. Jack Zipes. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014, xxv.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2017 The Author(s)
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
George, S. (2017). Spirited Away: Dream Work, the Outsider, and the Representation of Transylvania in the Pied Piper and Dracula Myth in Britain and Germany. In: Crișan, MM. (eds) Dracula. Palgrave Gothic. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63366-4_5
Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-319-63365-7
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-63366-4