Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Obesity and Metabolic Disorders

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Neurobiology book series (NEUROBIOL, volume 19)

Abstract

The hypothalamus is the brain region responsible for the maintenance of energetic homeostasis. The regulation of this process arises from the ability of the hypothalamus to orchestrate complex physiological responses such as food intake and energy expenditure, circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility. Metabolic alterations such as obesity can compromise these hypothalamic regulatory functions. Alterations in circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility further contribute to aggravate the metabolic dysfunction of obesity and contribute to the development of chronic disorders such as depression and infertility.

At cellular level, obesity caused by overnutrition can damage the hypothalamus promoting inflammation and impairing hypothalamic neurogenesis. Furthermore, hypothalamic neurons suffer apoptosis and impairment in synaptic plasticity that can compromise the proper functioning of the hypothalamus. Several factors contribute to these phenomena such as ER stress, oxidative stress, and impairments in autophagy. All these observations occur at the same time and it is still difficult to discern whether inflammatory processes are the main drivers of these cellular dysfunctions or if the hypothalamic hormone resistance (insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) can be pinpointed as the source of several of these events.

Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiology of obesity in the hypothalamus is crucial for the development of strategies that can prevent or attenuate the deleterious effects of obesity.

Keywords

Hypothalamus Obesity Energy expenditure Food intake Circadian rhythm Stress response Fertility 

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNC—Center for Neuroscience and Cell BiologyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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