Chromatin Remodelling Proteins and Cell Fate Decisions in Mammalian Preimplantation Development
The very first cell divisions in mammalian embryogenesis produce a ball of cells, each with the potential to form any cell in the developing embryo or placenta. At some point, the embryo produces enough cells that some are located on the outside of the embryo, while others are completely surrounded by other cells. It is at this point that cells undergo the very first lineage commitment event: outer cells form the trophectoderm and lose the potential to form embryonic lineages, while inner cells form the Inner Cell Mass, which retain embryonic potential. Cell identity is defined by gene expression patterns, and gene expression is largely controlled by how the DNA is packaged into chromatin. A number of protein complexes exist which are able to use the energy of ATP to remodel chromatin: that is, to alter the nucleosome topology of chromatin. Here, we summarise the evidence that chromatin remodellers play essential roles in the successful completion of preimplantation development in mammals and describe recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms through which chromatin remodellers facilitate the successful completion of the first cell fate decisions in mammalian embryogenesis.
- Carey TS, Cao Z, Choi I, Ganguly A, Wilson CA, Paul S, Knott JG (2015) BRG1 governs Nanog transcription in early mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells via antagonism of histone H3 lysine 9/14 acetylation. Mol Cell Biol 35:4158–4169. https://doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00546-15 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Clapier CR, Cairns BR (2009) The biology of chromatin remodeling complexes. Annu Rev Biochem 78:273–304. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.biochem.77.062706.153223 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hargreaves DC, Crabtree GR (2011) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling: genetics, genomics and mechanisms. Cell Res 21:396–420. https://doi.org/10.1038/cr.2011.32
- Ho L, Jothi R, Ronan JL, Cui K, Zhao K, Crabtree GR (2009a) An embryonic stem cell chromatin remodeling complex, esBAF, is an essential component of the core pluripotency transcriptional network. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:5187–5191. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0812888106 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kim J, Huh SO, Choi H et al (2001) Srg3, a mouse homolog of yeast SWI3, is essential for early embryogenesis and involved in brain development. Mol Cell Biol 21:7787–7795. doi:papers://04C73E32-973C-4954-A27A-47DF745B4CBA/Paper/p819Google Scholar