Formal Verification of Financial Algorithms

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10395)


Many deep issues plaguing today’s financial markets are symptoms of a fundamental problem: The complexity of algorithms underlying modern finance has significantly outpaced the power of traditional tools used to design and regulate them. At Aesthetic Integration, we have pioneered the use of formal verification for analysing the safety and fairness of financial algorithms. With a focus on financial infrastructure (e.g., the matching logics of exchanges and dark pools and FIX connectivity between trading systems), we describe the landscape, and illustrate our Imandra formal verification system on a number of real-world examples. We sketch many open problems and future directions along the way.



We thank our incredible team at Aesthetic Integration. Without them, much of this work would not have been accomplished. In particular, Konstantin Kanishev, Ewen Maclean, Sergey Grigorchuk and Matt Bray have been crucially involved in the design and implementation of the Imandra FIX DSL and its surrounding verification infrastructure. Elijah Kagan’s unique design perspective has helped us communicate our ideas much more effectively and enjoyably than we would have been able to otherwise.

Finally, we thank Jeremy Avigad, Bob Boyer, Gerry Dunning, Paul Jackson, J Moore, Leo de Moura, Larry Paulson, John Detrixhe of Bloomberg, Philip Stafford of the Financial Times, Jim Northey of the FIX Trading Community and Austin Gerig of the US Securities and Exchange Commission for their encouragement, useful discussions and advice.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aesthetic Integration, Ltd.LondonUK
  2. 2.Clare Hall, University of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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