Strabismus pp 143-151 | Cite as


  • Burton J. Kushner


In many cases the treatment of diplopia is straightforward. Correct the ocular misalignment and the diplopia resolves. In some cases, it is not that straightforward. Furthermore, in formulating a surgical plan in a patient with diplopia there can be special considerations that would not be issues if the patients suppressed. This chapter focuses on these latter situations.


Anti-elevation syndrome (AES) Brown syndrome Craniofacial syndromes Dissociated vertical divergence (DVD) Overview Definition Pathophysiology Treatment Duane syndrome Inferior oblique (IO) anterior transpositions IO overaction IO palsy Overdepression in adduction Overelevation in adduction Myasthenia Prism under cover test (PUCT) Pulley abnormalities Restriction Skew Superior oblique (SO) incarceration SO palsy SO overaction Three-step test Errors in Torsion-objective Torsion-subjective Vertical rectus overaction Vertical rectus palsy Vertical strabismus Diagnosis Measurement of Torsion-objective Torsion-subjective 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton J. Kushner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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