Strabismus pp 51-71 | Cite as


  • Burton J. Kushner


The term esotropia is derived from the Greek, ésō, meaning within, and trópos, meaning a turn. There are countless jokes about crossed eyes, none of which will be repeated here. But it is no joke that having an esotropia (ET) has a subtle and not so subtle effect on the impression someone makes. Diane Arbus was a photographer who became famous by photographing marginal people, many of whom seemed somehow off-putting or surreal. Scrutiny of her work reveals that a disproportionately large number of subjects who just seemed “unsettling” to view had strabismus, with ET being substantially more frequent than exotropia (XT). Although permission was not obtainable for me to reproduce any of her photographs, interested readers can search the Web for examples. Search for “Girl With Cigar in Washington Square Park,” “A Young Brooklyn Couple Going for a Sunday Outing,” and “Young Couple on a Bench in Washington Square Park.”


Accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio (AC/A) Amblyopia Bifocals Ecothiopate iodide Esotropia (ET) Accommodative Infantile Refractive Phospholine iodide Posterior fixation Prism adaptation Pseudostrabismus 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton J. Kushner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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