Strabismus pp 297-304 | Cite as

Paralytic Strabismus: Third and Sixth Cranial Nerves

  • Burton J. Kushner
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter addresses the surgical treatment of third and sixth cranial nerve palsy. The treatment of fourth cranial nerve palsy is discussed in Chap.  8, “Vertical Deviations.”

Keywords

Aberrant innervation Foster augmentation Kestenbaum procedure Knapp procedure Lateral rectus palsy Third cranial nerve palsy 

References

  1. 1.
    Metz HS. Saccadic velocity studies in superior oblique palsy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102:721–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Santiago AP, Rosenbaum A. Selected transposition procedures. In: Rosenbaum A, Santiago AP, editors. Clinical strabismus management: principles and surgical techniques. Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders; 1999. p. 476–89.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee J, Harris S, Cohen J, Cooper K, MacEwen C, Jones S. Results of a prospective randomized trial of botulinum toxin therapy in acute unilateral sixth nerve palsy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1994;31:283–6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foster RS. Vertical muscle transposition augmented with lateral fixation. J AAPOS. 1997;1:20–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rosenbaum AL, Kushner BJ, Kirschen D. Vertical rectus muscle transposition and botulinum toxin (Oculinum) to medial rectus for abducens palsy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989;107:820–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mehendale RA, Dagi LR, Wu C, Ledoux D, Johnston S, Hunter DG. Superior rectus transposition and medial rectus recession for Duane syndrome and sixth nerve palsy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:195–201.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jenson CD. Rectus muscle union: a new operation for paralysis of the rectus muscle. Trans Pac Coast Otoophthalmol Soc. 1969;45:359–62.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    von Noorden GK. Anterior segment ischemia following the Jenson procedure. Arch Ophthalmol. 1976;94:845–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carlson MR, Jampolsky A. An adjustable transposition procedure for abduction deficiences. Am J Ophthalmol. 1979;87:382–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Laby DM, Rosenbaum AL. Adjustable vertical rectus muscle transposition surgery. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1994;31:75–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Knapp P. The surgical treatment of double-elevator palsy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1969;67:304–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kushner BJ. Surgical treatment of paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:485–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scott AB. Transposition of the superior oblique. Am Orthopt J. 1977;27:11–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldberg RA, Rosenbaum AL, Tong JT. Use of apically based periosteal flaps as globe tethers in severe paretic strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:431–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton J. Kushner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations