Strabismus pp 221-239 | Cite as

How to Perform Superior Surgery on the Inferior Oblique and Avoid Inferior Surgery on the Superior Oblique

  • Burton J. Kushner


As stated in Chap.  8, “Vertical Deviations,” not all causes of overelevation in adduction are a result of inferior oblique muscle (IO) “overaction” (OA) . There are many causes of overelevation in adduction that are not caused by “OA” of the IO and will have an unsatisfactory response to surgical weakening of that muscle. These include pseudo-IO OA [1], anti-elevation syndrome (AES) [2], dissociated vertical divergence (DVD), Duane syndrome , pulley heterotopia [3, 4], inferior restrictions in the contralateral eye, and many cases with craniofacial syndromes.


Anti-elevation syndrome (AES) Dissociated vertical divergence DVD Frenulum Inferior oblique muscle (IO) IO adherence syndrome IO anterior transposition IO myectomy IO recession Scleral buckle Superior oblique muscle (SO) Tuck Resection Plication Advancement Tenotomy Tenectomy Spacer Split tendon lengthening Posterior tenectomy Anterior tenectomy 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton J. Kushner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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