Strabismus pp 209-219 | Cite as

Thyroid Eye Disease

  • Burton J. Kushner
Chapter

Abstract

When the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and orbital contents are affected in patients with clinical or subclinical thyroid disorders , a variety of terms have been used to describe the ocular condition. These include Graves’ disease, Graves’ orbitopathy, endocrine ophthalmopathy , thyroid ophthalmopathy, and thyroid eye disease (TED). It is also called thyroid-associated eye disease, because it can occur in patients who are euthyroid or have hypothyroid chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. I will use the term TED.

Keywords

A-pattern Adjustable sutures Endocrine ophthalmopathy Eyelid retraction Forced ductions Rotary Graves’ orbitopathy—see thyroid eye disease Magnetic resonance image (MRI) Restrictive strabismus Semi-adjustable suture Slipped muscle Thyroid eye disease (TED) 

References

  1. 1.
    Bahn RS. Graves’ ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:726–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kushner BJ. Thyroid eye disease. InDortzbach R, editor. Ophthalmic plastic surgery prevention and management of complications. New YorkRaven Press; 1994. p. 381–94.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Metz HS. Complications following surgery for thyroid ophthalmopathy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1984;21:220–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dal Canto AJ, Crowe S, Perry JD, Traboulsi EI. Intraoperative relaxed muscle positioning technique for strabismus repair in thyroid eye disease. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:2324–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nicholson BP, De Alba M, Perry JD, Traboulsi EI. Efficacy of the intraoperative relaxed muscle positioning technique in thyroid eye disease and analysis of cases requiring reoperation. J AAPOS. 2011;15:321–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harper DG. Topical anesthesia for inferior rectus recession in thyroid ophthalmopathy. Ann Ophthalmol. 1978;10:499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chatzistefanou KI, Kushner BJ, Gentry LR. Magnetic resonance imaging of the arc of contact of extraocular musclesimplications regarding the incidence of slipped muscles. J AAPOS. 2000;4:84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kushner BJ. Torsion and pattern strabismuspotential conflicts in treatment. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:190–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kushner BJ. A surgical procedure to minimize lower-eyelid retraction with inferior rectus recession. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110:1011–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kushner BJ. Management of diplopia limited to down gaze. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:1426–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton J. Kushner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations