Strabismus pp 209-219 | Cite as

Thyroid Eye Disease

  • Burton J. Kushner


When the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and orbital contents are affected in patients with clinical or subclinical thyroid disorders , a variety of terms have been used to describe the ocular condition. These include Graves’ disease, Graves’ orbitopathy, endocrine ophthalmopathy , thyroid ophthalmopathy, and thyroid eye disease (TED). It is also called thyroid-associated eye disease, because it can occur in patients who are euthyroid or have hypothyroid chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. I will use the term TED.


A-pattern Adjustable sutures Endocrine ophthalmopathy Eyelid retraction Forced ductions Rotary Graves’ orbitopathy—see thyroid eye disease Magnetic resonance image (MRI) Restrictive strabismus Semi-adjustable suture Slipped muscle Thyroid eye disease (TED) 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton J. Kushner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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