Tourism as a Territorial Strategy in the South China Sea
- 417 Downloads
Tourism is affecting spatial, social, political, and economic order across the South China Sea, reconfiguring leisure spaces and economies, popular political discourse, and geopolitical imaginaries. This is in line with China’s deployment of outbound tourism to achieve political objectives in other regions. This chapter argues that China is using tourism as a key tactic in the South China Sea to assert military and administrative control as well as cultural hegemony, both for its own citizens and against rival claimants. The chapter first provides a brief political history of China’s outbound tourism policies and practices in the maritime area. This is followed by a qualitative analysis of government statements, tourism marketing materials, and tourist blog posts. It then concludes that the South China Sea destinations are represented not only as new sites for leisure but also for the training of a patriotic Chinese citizenry. The tourism activities of Vietnam and the Philippines also receive brief discussion as competing projects.
KeywordsOutbound Tourism Paracel Islands Approved Destination Status (ADS) United Front Work Department sovereigntySovereignty
- Arlt, Wolfgang Georg. China’s Outbound Tourism. London: Routledge, 2006.Google Scholar
- “Asia’s Passport Wars: Chinese Map Triggers Diplomatic Firestorm.” Time, November/December 27, 2012. http://world.time.com/2012/11/27/asias-passport-wars-chinese-map-triggers-diplomatic-firestorm/. Accessed January 27, 2017.
- Baidu Jingyan. “How-to Guide to Woody Island [永兴岛旅游攻略_百度经验].” 百度经验—实用生活指南. http://jingyan.baidu.com/article/bea41d435f3099b4c51be632.html. Accessed January 30, 2017.
- Baidu Lvyou. “The Paracels: The Dreamy Southern Extent of the Nation 【西沙群岛】国之南境,圆梦西沙.” https://lvyou.baidu.com/pictravel/88a93abe237d6a7d27110164. Accessed January 30, 2017.
- BBC News. “Tourists ‘Used’ in China-Vietnam Paracel Islands Dispute.” October 1, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-29437299. Accessed January 26, 2017.
- Cartier, Carolyn. “What’s Territorial About China? From Geopolitical Narratives to the ‘Administrative Area Economy’”. Eurasian Geography and Economics 54, no. 1 (2013), 57–77.Google Scholar
- Chen, Jie. “China’s Spratly Policy: With Special Reference to the Philippines and Malaysia.” Asian Survey 34, no. 10 (1994), 893–903. doi: 10.2307/2644968.
- China Daily. “Sansha Seeks to Become Major Tourist Attraction.” May/June 27, 2016.. http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2016-05/27/content_25488692.htm. Accessed January 26, 2017.
- China National Democratic Construction Association, Hainan Provincial Committee, The United Front Work Department of CPC Central Committee. “Recommendations to Guarantee the Safety of Sansha Tourism [关于加强三沙旅游安全保障的建议].”. http://www.zytzb.gov.cn/tzb2010/jcjyxd/201505/c999d08b36a14b93aae8bbff263155bd.shtml. Accessed January 30, 2017.
- CNCN Travel.“Mysterious Paracel.” 欣欣旅游. http://www.cncn.com/xianlu/424301062668. Accessed January 30, 2017.
- CNCN Travel. “The Sansha No. 1.” 欣欣旅游. http://www.cncn.com/xianlu/787943014690. Accessed January 30, 2017.
- C-Trip Destination Guides. “【携程攻略】三沙攻略,三沙旅游指南/旅游介绍/旅游小贴士/区域分布/历史文化.” 携程旅游攻略,自助游,自驾游,出游,游玩攻略指南【携程攻略】. http://you.ctrip.com/summary/sansha120101.html. Accessed January 30, 2017.
- Ethirajan, A. Tourists “used” in China-Vietnam Paracel Islands Dispute. BBC, 2014.Google Scholar
- “First Chinese Tourists Visit Disputed South China Sea Island.” Shanghaiist. Last modified January 17, 2016. http://shanghaiist.com/2016/01/17/first_chinese_tourists_visit_fiery_cross_reef.php.
- Fravel, M. T. “China’s Strategy in the South China Sea.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 33, no. 3 (2011), 292. doi: 10.1355/cs33-3b.
- Hainan International Travel Airways. “The Coconut Princess [欣欣旅游].” http://www.cncn.com/xianlu/553593855843. Accessed August 20, 2015.
- “How-to guide to Yongxing Island [永兴岛旅游攻略].” Baidu Jingyan. http://jingyan.baidu.com/article/bea41d435f3099b4c51be632.html2014. Accessed August 1, 2015.
- Keck, Zachary. “Philippines Military to Offer Cruise Service in South China Sea.” The Diplomat, July/August 17, 2014. http://thediplomat.com/2014/08/philippines-military-to-offer-cruise-service-in-south-china-sea/. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Kim, S. S., Yingzhi Guo, and Jerome Agrusa. “Preference and Positioning Analyses of Overseas Destinations by Mainland Chinese Outbound Pleasure Tourists.” Journal of Travel Research 44, no. 2 (2005), 212–220. doi: 10.1177/0047287505278979.
- Li, X., & Liu, X.. Sansha Seeks to Become Major Tourist Attraction. China Daily, May 27, 2016.Google Scholar
- Lo, Sonny. “The Politics of Soft Power in Sino-Canadian Relations: Stephen Harper’s Visit to China and the Neglected Hong Kong Factor.” In The China Challenge: Sino-Canadian Relations in the 21st Century, edited by Huhua Cao and Vivienne Poy, 66–80. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2011.Google Scholar
- Mogato, M. China Angers Neighbors with Sea Claims on New Passports, November 22, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/22/us-china-southchinasea-idUSBRE8AL09Q20121122.
- Nyíri, Pál. Scenic Spots: Chinese Tourism, the State, and Cultural Authority. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006.Google Scholar
- Reuters. “China Angers Neighbors with Sea Claims on New Passports.” Reuters. Last modified November/December 22, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/22/us-china-southchinasea-idUSBRE8AL09Q20121122. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Reuters. “Civilians Emerge as Pawns in South China Sea Legal Chess Game.” Reuters. Last modified May 29, 2015. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-southchinasea-civilians-insight-idUSKBN0OE0KA20150529. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Richter, Linda K. “Political Implications of Chinese Tourism Policy.” Annals of Tourism Research 10, no. 3 (1983), 395–413. doi: 10.1016/0160-7383(83)90064-6.
- Rowen, Ian. “The Geopolitics of Tourism: Mobilities, Territory, and Protest in China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers (2016), 1–9. doi: 10.1080/00045608.2015.1113115.
- Rowen, Ian. “Tourism as a Territorial Strategy: The Case of China and Taiwan.” Annals of Tourism Research 46 (2014), 62–74. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2014.02.006.
- Shepherd, Robert. “UNESCO and the Politics of Cultural Heritage in Tibet.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 36, no. 2 (2006), 243–257. doi: 10.1080/00472330680000141.
- Shi, G. 史光焕. 永兴岛旅游攻略 [How-to Guide to Yongxing Island], 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http://jingyan.baidu.com/article/bea41d435f3099b4c51be632.html2014.
- South China Morning Post. “Vietnam Offering Cruises to Disputed Spratly Islands Fuels Sea Dispute with China.” June/July 6, 2015. http://www.scmp.com/news/asia/southeast-asia/article/1817558/vietnam-offering-cruises-disputed-spratly-islands-fuels. Accessed January 26, 2017.
- Thao, Nguyen H. “Vietnam and the Code of Conduct for the South China Sea.” Ocean Development & International Law 32, no. 2 (2001), 105–130. doi: 10.1080/00908320151100244.
- Tharoor, I. Asia’s Passport Wars: Chinese Map Triggers Diplomatic Firestorm. TIME World, November 27, 2012.Google Scholar
- “The Politics of Soft Power in Sino-Canadian Relations: Harper’s Visit to China and the Neglected Hong Kong Factor.” In The China Challenge: Sino-Canadian Relations in the 21st Century, edited by Vivienne Poy and Huhua Cao, 66–80. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2011.Google Scholar
- Torode, G., & Mogato, M. “Civilians Emerge as Pawns in South China Sea Legal Chess Game.” Reuters, May 29, 2015.Google Scholar