Advertisement

Tito’s Last Pioneers and the Politicization of Schooling in Yugoslavia

  • Anna Bogic
Chapter

Abstract

The chapter explores childhood experiences in the former Yugoslavia and interrogates the memories of eight years of elementary schooling between 1987 and 1995. Focusing on the so-called last generation of Yugoslav leader Tito’s pioneers, I examine some of my personal experiences of childhood and schooling while connecting and juxtaposing them with the wider socioeconomic and cultural context. The first part of the chapter critically describes daily schooling practices, uniforms, and celebrations in socialist Yugoslavia. The second part is set up against the backdrop of the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and studies the emerging new practices as well as schoolchildren’s reaction to them, highlighting a shift in politicization processes and their impact on children’s identities.

References

  1. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  2. Archer, R., Duda, I., & Stubbs, P. (Eds.). (2016). Social inequalities and discontent in Yugoslav socialism. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Baskin, M., & Pickering, P. (2011). Former Yugoslavia and its successors. In S. L. Wolchik & J. Leftwich Curry (Eds.), Central and east European politics: From communism to democracy (pp. 277–311). Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Besemeres, J. F. (1980). Socialist population politics: The political implications of demographic trends in the USSR and Eastern Europe. White Plains: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  5. Bochner, A. P. (2007). Notes toward an ethics of memory in autoethnographic inquiry. In N. K. Denzin & M. D. Giardina (Eds.), Ethical futures in qualitative research: Decolonizing the politics of knowledge (pp. 197–208). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bonfiglioli, C. (2011). Former east, former west: Post-socialist nostalgia and feminist genealogies in today’s Europe. Bulletin of the ethnographical institute, 59(1), 115–128.Google Scholar
  7. Bonfiglioli, C. (2013). Gendering social citizenship: Textile workers in post-Yugoslav spaces. The Europeanisation of citizenship in the successor states of the former Yugoslavia (CITSEE). CITSEE Working paper series 2013/30. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Retrieved from http://www.citsee.ed.ac.uk/working_papers/files/CITSEE_WORKING_PAPER_2013-30a.pdf
  8. Božinović, N. (1996). Žensko pitanje u Srbiji u XIX i XX veku [The woman question in Serbia in the 19th and 20th century]. Belgrade: Devedesetčetvrta; Žene u crnom.Google Scholar
  9. Bunce, V. (1999). Subversive institutions: The design and the destruction of socialism and the state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dević, A. (1997). Anti-war initiatives and the un-making of civic identities in the former Yugoslav republics. Journal of Historical Sociology, 10(2), 127–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drakulić, S. (1984). Smrtni grijesi feminizma. Ogledi o mudologiji [Mortal sins of feminism: Essays on testicology]. Zagreb: Znanje.Google Scholar
  12. Ellis, C., Adams, T. E., & Bochner, A. P. (2010). Autoethnography: An overview. Forum qualitative sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative social research, 12(1), Art. 10. Retrieved from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101108.Google Scholar
  13. Estrin, S. (1991). Yugoslavia: The case of self-managing market socialism. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(4), 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hamdan, A. (2012). Autoethnography as a genre of qualitative research: A journey inside out. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(5), 585–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Korać, M. (1998). The power of gender in the transition from state socialism to ethnic nationalism, militarization, and war: The case of post-Yugoslav states. PhD dissertation, York University, Toronto.Google Scholar
  16. Liotta, P. H. (2001). Paradigm lost: Yugoslav self-management and the economics of disaster. Balkanologie, 5 (1–2). Retrieved March 2017, from http://balkanologie.revues.org/681
  17. Mascia-Lees, F. E. (2011). Prologue: Autoethnography. In F. E. Mascia-Lees (Ed.), Companion to the anthropology of the body and embodiment (pp. 46–48). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Medgyes, P. (1997). Innovative second language education in central and Eastern Europe. In G. R. Tucker & D. Corson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education (Vol. 4, pp. 187–196). Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Millei, Z., & Imre, R. (Eds.). (2015). Childhood and nation: Interdisciplinary engagements. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. Mineva, M. (2014). Communism reloaded. In M. Todorova, A. Dimou, & S. Troebst (Eds.), Remembering communism (pp. 155–173). Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Mladjenović, L. (n.d.). Počeci feminizma. Ženski pokret u Beogradu, Zagrebu, Ljubljani [The beginnings of feminism. Women’s movement in Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana]. Retrieved March 2017, from http://www.womenngo.org.rs/zenski-pokret/istorija-zenskog-pokreta/217-poceci-feminizma-zenski-pokret-u-beogradu-zagrebu-ljubljani
  22. Papić, Ž. (1989). Sociologija i feminizam: Savremeni pokret i misao o oslobodjenju žena i njegov uticaj na sociologiju [Sociology and feminism: Contemporary movement and thought on women’s emancipation and its influence on sociology]. Belgrade: Istraživački i izdavački centar SSO Srbije.Google Scholar
  23. Papić, Ž. (1999). Women in Serbia: Post-communism, war and nationalist mutations. In S. Ramet (Ed.), Gender politics in the Western Balkans: Women and society in Yugoslavia and the Yugoslav successor states (pp. 153–169). University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Petrović, P., Bogetić, Ž., & Vujošević, Z. (1999). The Yugoslav hyperinflation of 1992–1994: Causes, dynamics, and money supply process. Journal of Comparative Economics, 27, 335–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Petrović, T. (2010). “When we were Europe”: Socialist workers in Serbia and their nostalgic narratives. In M. N. Todorova (Ed.), Remembering communism: Genres of representation (pp. 127–154). New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  26. Petrović, T. (2012). Yuropa: Jugoslovensko nasledje i politike budućnosti u postjugoslovenskim društvima [Yuropa: Yugoslav heritage and the politics of the future in post-Yugoslav societies]. Belgrade: Edicija REČ.Google Scholar
  27. Popović, M. (2013). La Yougonostalgie—La Yougoslavie au regard des derniers pionniers [Yugonostalgia—Yugoslavia and the last pioneers]. Master’s thesis, Université Paris 2 Panthéon Assas, Paris.Google Scholar
  28. Silova, I. (2010). Post-socialism is not dead: (Re)reading the global in comparative education. International perspectives on education and society (Vol. 14). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  29. Silova, I., Mead Yaqub, M., & Palandjian, G. (2014). Pedagogies of space: (Re)mapping territories, borders, and identities in post-soviet textbooks. In J. H. Williams (Ed.), (Re)constructing memory: School textbooks, identity, and the pedagogies and politics of imagining community (pp. 103–130). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Sklevicky, L. (1989). More horses than women: On the difficulties of founding women’s history in Yugoslavia. Gender & history, 1(1), 68–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stojčić, M. (2009). Proleteri svih zemalja—ko vam pere čarape? Feministički pokret u Jugoslaviji 1978–1989 [Proleterians of the world—Who’s washing your socks? Feminist movement in Yugoslavia 1978–1989]. In Dj. Tomić & P. Atanacković (Eds.), Društvo u pokretu: Novi društveni pokreti u Jugoslaviji od 1968 do danas [Society on the move. New social movements in Yugoslavia from 1968 to today] (pp. 108–121). Novi Sad: Cenzura.Google Scholar
  32. Yurchak, A. (1997). The cynical reason of late socialism: Power, pretense, and anekdot. Public Culture, 9, 161–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watson, P. (2000). Re-thinking transition: Globalism, gender and class. International feminist journal of politics, 2(2), 185–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Woodward, S. (1985). The rights of women: Ideology, policy, and social change in Yugoslavia. In S. L. Wolchik & A. G. Meyer (Eds.), Women, state, and party in Eastern Europe (pp. 234–254). Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Woodward, S. (1995). Balkan tragedy: Chaos and dissolution after the Cold War. Washington: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Bogic
    • 1
  1. 1.University of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations