Monitoring Progress in Toilet Training

  • William J. Warzak
  • Abigail E. Kennedy
  • Kayzandra Bond
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)


Many training protocols have been developed to facilitate acquisition of continence skills. These range from structured, parent-directed protocols epitomized by the work of Foxx and Azrin to unstructured, child-guided protocols such as those of Brazelton, Schmitt, and Spock. Regardless of the protocol, measuring progress is an important element of any behavior change program, and acquisition of continence skills is no different. This chapter provides a review of methods and measures commonly used to evaluate the acquisition of continence skills in young children. Measuring toilet training progress entails more than counting voids in the toilet or episodes of wet pants. Measurement also encompasses recording the integrity with which a protocol is implemented as well as the reliability of the dependent measures. In turn, this requires an appropriate candidate for toilet training as well as having the necessary materials to initiate the protocol successfully. Therefore, while methods of direct observation and measures of toileting behavior will be a primary focus here, measures related to verifying the fidelity of methods, materials, and procedures necessary for the successful implementation of toilet training with integrity also are presented.


Toilet training Potty training Incontinence 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • William J. Warzak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Abigail E. Kennedy
    • 1
  • Kayzandra Bond
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology985450 Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Munroe-Meyer InstituteUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

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