Normal Developmental Milestones of Toileting

  • Claire O. Burns
  • Johnny L. Matson
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)


The age at which children should begin toilet training is a question that concerns many parents. Although there is no universally accepted timeline for toileting skills, researchers have suggested general age ranges during which these abilities are likely to emerge. The current chapter discusses normal toileting milestones and when they tend to occur in typically developing children. Necessary developmental precursors, such as physiological and psychological maturity, are described. This chapter also considers factors that influence age at successful toileting, such as gender and cultural differences. Finally, the authors attempt to dispel some of the common misconceptions regarding toilet training. There has been a great deal of media attention surrounding certain trends in toileting practices, and these methods often deviate from those recommended by researchers and clinicians. The elimination communication method in particular has gained popularity in the United States in recent years, and the implications and feasibility of this method are explored.


Toilet training Development Infants Toddlers Toileting milestones 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

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