Risk Factors

Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)


Risk factors are inherent to any activity in life. Toileting is a natural life activity. Therefore, it is logical to assume that there are risk factors natural to toilet training. The World Health Organization defines a risk factor as “any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury” (World Health Organization (2013) World Health Report 2013. Retrieved from In reference to the current topic, risk factors pose as barriers to delaying successful toilet training or ultimately preventing successful toilet training from being achieved. In training toileting, continence, where an individual must be able to recognize the sensation for elimination, and mastery of the entire chain of behaviors accompanying a toilet visit including traveling, excreting, washing and redressing must be present in order to achieve independent and appropriate toileting skills (Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 3:607–618). Risks to successful toileting behavior are inherent across those areas of continence and toileting behavior. This chapter explores continence potential risk factors related to child and caregiver characteristics, environmental challenges, and cultural barriers. Directions for future research endeavors and considerations not yet addressed by the current empirical body are also presented as additional areas of potential risk.


Risk factors Age Physiological issues Diet Developmental disabilities Child factors Children with special healthcare needs CSHCN Chronic illnesses Temperament Caregiver factors Caregiver traits Environmental factors Cultural climate 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. A. Kroeger
    • 1
  • Stephanie Weber
    • 1
  • Jennifer Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Kelly O’Leary Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders, Division of Developmental and Behavioral PediatricsCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA

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