Advertisement

Special Populations: Toilet Training Children with Disabilities

Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Children with special needs, specifically those with intellectual disabilities (ID) or developmental disabilities (DD), are at particular risk for delays in toilet training or for ongoing toileting problems. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a generalized sampling of diagnoses that fall under the larger umbrella statement of ID and DD, a brief history of toilet training practices over the past 60 years, and research that provides evidence for current effective practices. Best practice outcomes will be discussed and compared to offer practitioners insight regarding success across interventions. Future perspectives based on changes to educational law at the federal level (IDEA, Building the legacy: IDEA 2004. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from http://idea.ed.gov/archive, 2004) will be included to support a shift in learning environments and the relevance of toilet training for the purposes of “quality of life” and as a component to adaptive learning across settings.

Keywords

Developmental disability Intellectual disability Toilet training 

Supplementary material

References

  1. Azrin, N. H., & Foxx, R. M. (1971). A rapid method of toilet training the institutionalized retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4(2), 89–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, D. B., Hatton, D. D., Mesibov, G., Ament, N., & Skinner, M. (2000). Early development, temperament, and functional impairment in autism and fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(1), 49–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, B. L., & Brightman, A. J. (1997). Steps to independence; teaching everyday skills to children with special needs. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  4. Brazelton, T. B. (1962). A child oriented approach to toilet training. Pediatrics, 29, 121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, F. J., & Peace, N. (2011). Teaching a child with challenging behaviors to use the toilet: A clinical case study. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(4), 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyle, C. A., Boulet, S., Schieve, L.A., Cohen, R. A., Blumberg, S. J., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Usser, S., Visser, S., & Kogan, M. D. (2011, June). Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics, 127(6), 1034–1042.Google Scholar
  7. Bryson, S. E., Rogers, S. J., & Fombonne, E. (2003). Autism spectrum disorders: Early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 506–515.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 4, 1–174.Google Scholar
  9. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Developmental disabilities. Retrieved September 16, 2016.Google Scholar
  10. Chudley, A. E., Conry, J., Cook, J., Loock, J., Rosales, T., & LeBlank, N. (2005). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian guidelines for diagnosis. CMAJ, 172(5 Suppl), S1–S21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Cocchiola, M. A., Martino, G. M., Dwyer, L. J., & Demezzo, K. (2012). Toilet training childre n with autism and developmental delays: An effective program for school settings. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5(2), 60–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Christophersen, E. R. (1991). Toileting problems in children. Pediatric Annals, 20(5), 240–244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cicero, F. R., & Pfadt, A. (2002). Investigation of a reinforcement-based toilet training procedure for children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23(5), 319–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  15. Dalrymple, N. J., & Ruble, L. A. (1992). Toilet training and behaviors of people with autism; parent views. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(22), 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Foxx, R. M., & Azrin, H. H. (1973). Toilet Training the Retarded. In Behavior Therapy (vol. Volume 5, Issue 2, March 1974, pp. 280–282). Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  17. Greenspan, S. I., Wieder, S., & Simons, R. (1998). The child with special needs: Encouraging intellectual and emotional growth. Reading, MA, US: Addison-Wesley/Addison Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
  18. Handel, L. B. (2003). Males with down’s syndrome and neurogenic bladder. The Journal of Urology, 169, 646–649.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Joinson, C., Heron, J., vonContard, A., Butler, U., Golding, A., & Emond, J. (2013). Early childhood risk factors associated with daytime wetting and soiling in school-age children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33(7), 739–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klassen, T. P., Kiddoo, D., Lang, M. E., Friesen, C., Russell, K., Spooner, C., & Vandermeer, B. (2006). The effectiveness of different methods of toilet training for bowel and bladder. US Department of Health and Human Services, Evidence Report/ Technology Assessment, 147; December 2006.Google Scholar
  21. Konarski, E. A., & Diorio, M. S. (1985). A quantitative review of self-help research with the severely and profoundly retarded. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 6, 229–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kroeger, K. A., & Sorensen-Burnworth, R. (2009). Toilet training individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities: A critical review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(3), 607–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. LeBlanc, L. A., Carr, J. E., Crossett, S. E., Bennett, C. M., & Detweiler, D. D. (2005). Intensive outpatient behavioral treatment of primary urinary incontinence of children with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 98–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Luxem, M., & Christophersen, E. (1994). Behavioral toilet training in early childhood: Research, practice and implications. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 15(5), 370–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Matson, J. L. (1990). Handbook of behavioral modification with the mentally retarded. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mazefsky, C. A., Herrington, J., Siegel, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B., Scahill, L., & White, S. W. (2013). The role of emotional regulation in autism spectrum disorder RH: Emotional regulation in ASD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(7), 679–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. NIH. https://report.nih.gov/nihfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=100; updated 05–2013. Accessed September 15, 2016.
  28. Osturk, M., Oktem, F., & Kisioglu, N. D. (2006). Bowel and bladder control in children with cerebral palsy: Case control study. Croation Medical Journal, 47(2), 264–270.Google Scholar
  29. Phillips, D. (2012). Early childhood development and disability: A discussion paper. World Health Organization. https://www.Google.Com/search?Q=diagnoses+that+compromise+developmental +disabilities&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8, access September 12, 2016).
  30. Pivato, E. (2009). Breaching the last frontier: Dignity and the toileting issue for persons with multiple and severe disabilities. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin., 37(1), 153–164.Google Scholar
  31. Rinaldi, K., & Mirenda, P. (2012). Effectiveness of a modified rapid toilet training workshop for parents of children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(3), 933–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rogers, J. (2010). One step at a time: How to toilet train children with developmental disabilities. Nursing Times, 106(47), 19–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Rosales-Ruiz, J., & Baer, D. (1997). Behavioral cusps: A developmental and programatic concept for behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 533–544.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Sells-Love, D., Rinaldi, L. M., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2002). Toilet training an adolescent in the classroom: A case study. Journal of Developmental and Learning Disabilities, June 2002, 14(2), 111–118.Google Scholar
  35. Silva, L. M. T., & Schalock, M. (2012). Autism parent stress index; initial psychometric evidence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(4), 566–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Singh, B., Masey, H., & Morton, R. (2006). Levels of continence in children with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Nursing, 18(4), 23–26.Google Scholar
  37. Smith, G., McDougall, D., & Edelen-Smith, P. (2006). Behavioral cusps: A person-centered concept for establishing pivotal individual, family, and community behaviors and repertoires. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders., 21(4), 223–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith, J. S., & Chaneb, B. (2016). Toilet Training. A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (pp. 943–955). Boston: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. Spock, B. (1946). The common sense book of baby and child care: New York: Duell., Sloan and Pearce.Google Scholar
  40. Stadtler, A. C., Gorski, P. A., & Brazelton, T. B. (1999). Toilet training methods, clinical interventions and recommendations. American Academy of Pediatrics, June, 103, 1359–1368.Google Scholar
  41. U.S. Department of Education. (2004). Building the legacy: IDEA 2004. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from http://idea.ed.gov/archive
  42. Van Wagenen, R. K., Meyerson, L., Kerr, N. J., & Mahoney, K. (1969). Field trials of a new procedure for toilet training. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1(8), 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vermandel, A., VanKampen, M., Van Gorp, C., & Wyndaele, J. J. (2008). How to toilet train healthy children? A review of literature. Neurological Urodynamics, 27, 162–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yoo, H. (2010, December 16th). https://www.opwdd.ny.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Toilet_Training_Trainer Manual.pdf. Retrieved August 10th, 2016.
  45. WHO. (2011). http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf. Retrieved October 3, 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Capitol Region Education Council-River Street Autism ProgramWindsorUSA

Personalised recommendations