Medical Issues

  • GenaLynne C. Mooneyham
  • Jessica Xiaoxi Ouyang
  • Cassie D. Karlsson
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)


The developmental task of teaching our children continence is one which families across the globe face daily. Many children progress through the phases of acquiring continence largely without issue. However, there are a variety of hurdles which may be encountered during this process that may ultimately warrant a medical evaluation. This chapter will provide a general overview of the medical terminology specific to enuresis. Moreover, the authors will introduce a framework for times in which a medical workup may be required. Current literature regarding the conceptualization of lower urinary tract issues will be reviewed emphasizing clinical practice guidelines commonly used within the fields of general pediatrics and pediatric urology. Likewise, scenarios in which non-healthcare clinicians need to advocate for a formal medical workup will be introduced. Constipation and impactions are potentially serious medical problems related to toileting (Bayne and Skoog, Pediatrics in Review 35(8):327–334, 2014). Diet, medication, and other factors associated with these problems will be reviewed. The interplay between constipation and enuresis will be discussed and treatment strategies to address both elements will be included. Medications continue to be used for nighttime enuresis refractory to behavioral interventions alone. This chapter will outline some commonly used medications as well as a discussion of the potential pitfalls associated with these treatments.


Enuresis Lower urinary tract issues Pediatric urology Constipation Impactions Diet Medication Medications 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • GenaLynne C. Mooneyham
    • 1
  • Jessica Xiaoxi Ouyang
    • 2
  • Cassie D. Karlsson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Department of PediatricsDuke University School of MedicineDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Indiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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