Advertisement

Technology Used in Toilet Training

  • Johnny L. Matson
Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

A number of technological advances have occurred in the toilet training of children. Early developments such as the “bell and pad” have been available for decades. Similarly, daytime pants alarms have been in widespread use for some time. More recent developments involving computer technology and telecommunications have emerged. This chapter reviews the literature on the use of technology and its evolution overtime.

Keywords

Technology Daytime treatment Nocturnal treatment Bell and pad Video modeling Mobile phone application Toilet seats Biofeedback 

References

  1. Azrin, N. H., Bugle, C., & O’Brien, F. (1971). Behavioral engineering: Two apparatuses for toilet training retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 249–253.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Azrin, N. H., & Foxx, R. M. (1971). A rapid method of toilet training the institutionalized retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 89–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Azrin, N. H., Sneed, T. J., & Foxx, R. M. (1973). Dry bed: A rapid method of eliminating bedwetting (enuresis) of the retarded. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 11, 427–434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Battaglia, E., Serra, A. M., Buonafede, G., Dughera, L., Chistolini, F., Morelli, A., & Bassotti, E. G. (2004). Long-tern study on the effects of visual biofeedback and muscle training as a therapeutic modality in pelvic floor dyssynergia and slow-transit constipation. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 47, 90–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bettison, S. (1982). A comparison of toilet training strategies for the retarded. University of Adelaide: Unpublished doctoral dissertation.Google Scholar
  6. Chang, Y.-J., Lee, M.-Y., Chou, L.-D., Chen, S. F., & Chen, Y.-C. (2011). A mobile wetness detection system enabling teachers to toilet train children with intellectual disabilities in a public school setting. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23, 527–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiarioni, G., Salandini, L., & Whitehead, W. E. (2005). Biofeedback benefits only patients with outlet dysfunction, not patients with isolated slow transit constipation. Gastroenterology, 129, 86–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dolyes, D. M. (1977). Behavioral treatments for nocturnal enuresis in children: A review of the recent literature. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 30–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Drysdale, B., Lee, C. Y. Q., Anderson, A., & Moore, D. W. (2014). Using video modeling incorporating animation to teach toileting to two children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27, 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fava, G. A., Cracco, L., & Facco, L. (1981). Positive reinforcement and enuresis. Italian. Journal of Psychology, 8, 149–152.Google Scholar
  11. Glass, A. S., Bagga, H. S., Tasian, G. E., McGeady, J. B., McCulloch, C. E., Blaschko, S. D., … Breyer, B. N. (2013). No small slam: Increasing incidents of genitourinary injury from toilets and toilet seats. BJU International, 112, 398–403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Greer, B. D., Neider, P. L., & Dozier, C. L. (2016). A component analysis of toilet-training procedures recommended for young children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49, 69–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Henriksen, N., & Peterson, S. (2013). Behavioral treatment of bedwetting in an adolescent with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 25, 313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heymen, S., Scarlett, Y., Ringel, J. K., Drossman, D., & Whitehead, W. E. (2007). Randomized controlled trial shows biofeedback to be superior to alternative treatments for patients with pelvic floor dyssynergia-type constipation. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 50, 428–441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaplan, S. L., Breit, M., Gauthier, B., & Busner, J. (1989). A comparison of three nocturnal enuresis treatment methods. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 282–286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kwon, W.-A., Kim, S.H., Kim, S., Joung, J.Y., Chung, J., Lee, K.H., … & Seo, H.K. (2015). Changes in urination according to the sound of running water using a mobile phone application. PLOS ONE.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126798
  17. Lassen, M., & Fluet, N. (1979). Multifaceted behavioral treatment for nocturnal enuresis. Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 10, 155–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee, C. Y. Q., Anderson, D. W., & Moore, D. W. (2013). Using video modeling to toilet train a child with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26, 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Levanto, K. E., Aponte, C. A., Wilkins, J., Travis, R., Aiello, R., Zanibbi, K., … Mruzek, D. W. (2016). Use of urine alarms in toilet training children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 53-54, 232–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mahoney, K., Van Wagenen, R. K., & Meyerson, L. (1971). Toilet training of normal and retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 173–181.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Matson, J. L., & Boisjoli, J. A. (2007). Multiple versus single maintaining factors of challenging behaviours as assessed by the QABF for adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 32, 39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Matson, J. L., Boisjoli, J. A., Hess, J. A., & Wilkins, J. (2010). Factor structure and diagnostic fidelity of the Baby and Infant Screen for children with aUtIsm Traits Part 1 (BISCUIT-Part 1). Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13, 72–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Matson, J. L., LeBlanc, L. A., & Weinheimer, B. (1999). Reliability of the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills in Individuals with Severe Retardation (MESSIER). Behavior Modification, 23, 647–661.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Matson, J. L., Mahan, S., & LoVullo, S. V. (2009). Parent training: A review of methods for children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 961–968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Matson, J. L., Mayville, S. B., Kuhn, D. E., Laud, R., & Cooper, C. (2005). The behavioral function of feeding problems as assessed by the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 399–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Matson, J. L., & Wilkins, J. (2008). Antipsychotic drugs for aggression in intellectual disability. The Lancet, 371, 9–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McLay, L., Carnett, A., vanderMeer, L., & Lang, R. (2015). Using a video modeling-based intervention package to toilet train two children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27, 431–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meadow, R. (1977). How to use buzzer alarms to cure bed-wetting. British Medical Journal, ii, 1073–1075.Google Scholar
  29. Mowrer, O. H., & Mowrer, W. M. (1938). Enuresis: A method for its study and treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 18, 436–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oredsson, A. F., & Jorgensen, T. M. (1998). Changes in nocturnal bladder capacity during treatment with the bell and pad for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. The Journal of Urology, 160, 166–169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Passman, R. H. (1975). An automatic device for toilet training. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rajigab, L. S. (1996). Treatment of choice for nocturnal enuresis: Review and recommendations. Journal of Psychological. Practice, 2, 33–42.Google Scholar
  33. Rao, S. S. C. (2011). Biofeedback therapy for constipation in adults. Best Practice Research in Clinical Gastroenterology, 25, 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rao, S. S., Seaton, K., Miller, M., Brown, K., Nygaard, I., Stumbo, P., … Schulze, K. (2007). Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback, sham feedback, and standard therapy for dyssynergic defection. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 5, 331–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Simon, J. L., & Thompson, R. H. (2006). The effects of undergarment type on the urinary continence of toddlers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 363–368.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith, T. (2014). Field report: Making toilet training easier-a novel enuresis alarm system. Behavior Analysis Practice, 7, 31–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stein, M.A., Mendelsohn, J., Obermeyer, W.H., Amromin, B.A. & Beuca, R. (2001). Sleep and behavior problems in school-aged children. Pediatrics, 1007(4), e60. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/107/4/e6o.long
  38. Tarbox, R. S. F., Williams, W. L., & Friman, P. C. (2004). Extended diaper wearing: Effects on continence in and out of the diaper. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 97–100.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Wagenen, R. K., Meyerson, L., Keer, N. J., & Mahoney, K. (1969). Field trials of a new procedure for toilet training. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 8, 147–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Van Wagenen, R. K., & Murdock, E. E. (1966). A transistorized signal-package for toilet training of infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 3, 312–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wright, J.M.C. (1975). Comparison of toilet training techniques with institutionalized retarded children. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Queensland.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations